Ethereum dapps reddit
The following is Project I've developed. Possibly one of the earliest decentralized social media platforms running on Ethereum's Blockchain. TL;DR: Ethereum's Official Dapps will define Ethereum for the mainstream and have more PR / image impact than the Ethereum's technology. r/ethdev: Ethereum-related dev talk: Contracts, DApps, Wallets, Clients, Infrastructure, Tooling, UIs, Patterns, and others. VERGINAS SPORT NICOSIA BETTING
Libraries dapp-bin - Ethereum repo providing implementations for many common data structures and utilities in Solidity, Serpent and LLL. Solidity Collections - Collections of code snippets and utility libraries. OpenZeppelin - Framework to build secure smart contracts. Examples Solidity By Example - Contract examples from the official docs. Ethereum vs. ERC - Token standard for non-fungible assets.
Basically will there be resharding? If so, how is resharding done? How are you solving the fast state syncing problem if nodes need to be reshuffled around shards? A: How do you prevent single shard corruption attacks? By randomly shuffling validators across shards. Right now crosslink committees are shuffled every epoch 6. Crosslink committees are critical, hence why there are shuffled fast. See this answer also. Which problems of Phase 1 and 2 are still left to be solved?
A: The short answer is there are no big fundamental problems for phases 0, 1, 2. The more detailed answer is that for phase 0 we need locally-computable shuffles. For phase 2 we need to figure out sustainable storage. A: Storing data on Ethereum is expensive per byte.
Infrastructure like Filecoin may prove to be a good trustless storage solution. For privacy, just encrypt the data. Unfortunately those likely won't be ready for phase 0. For true decentralization it is required to get more people on board that understand the full process. A: ETH—at least when Ethereum 2. Fungibility is a key design goal. Is there is centralized server? A: This is an implementation detail. Some clients may have a hardcoded list of "bootstrap node" IPs and ports.
A: Nothing final. Ultimately the community will have to make a tradeoff between low inflation and high security. A: Very high. No fundamental problems unsolved. The tricky part is getting everything to fit together cleanly. And what do I do with it in the mean time? A: I tend to be critical of that class of systems. A: Yes, there are already a number of experiments in eth1.
Check out miximus for privacy and roll up for scalability both by barry whitehat! A: ETH 2. The reason we have phases 0, 1, 2 is to break things down conceptually, and in terms of incremental releases to limit risk. Are there any efforts to translate research specifications into other languages?
A: Are there any efforts to translate research specifications into other languages? Once the spec is more mature I expect the community to pick this up, somewhat similar to how Andreas's books get translated. English seems to be the a lingua franca for research and development. A: When your validator gets penalised it is automatically deregistered to prevent further damage.
We have a mechanism called "partial slashing". The idea is that, if something goes wrong with your validator it only gets penalised a bit if not many other validators also mess up around that time. So in the optimistic case of a lone hack you should recover most of your funds with your withdrawal key kept secure, e.
A: That will likely be unlocked with abstraction which includes gas abstraction. A: Rough ballpark figures. Since Vitalik already said 'research is done', what are developers' incentives to push things forward? Are there any specific measures taken to ensure a smooth transition? A: I expect the beacon chain the core PoS chain to launch late Ideally the spec should be close to final in Q1, cross-client testnets in Q2, security audits in Q3, mainnet launch in Q4.
As a rule of thumb, launching in December is hard because of the holiday season. So November and January would be my two best guesses. Having the Ethereum 2. For example: private eth network run in a shard connected to main eth network from which it takes just security from validators. Private transaction with ZKsnarks shard s. Encrypted data shards. Erc20 like coin launched on ETH 2. A: Every shard has the same data availability layer, and the option to use EVM2.
That's common base-layer infrastructure. At the application layer contracts can be powered by non-EVM2. There's also a huge L2 design around state channels, plasma, cross-shard communication, etc. So at the application layer I expect lots of non-homogeneity across shards, as well as a lots of homogeneity thanks to standardisation.
How much thinking is being devoted to the greater infrastructure requirements of Eth 2. A: Ethereum 2. Note that storing shard blocks since genesis is not required. A: PoS enables goodies such as economic finality and sharding. It is also much cheaper in terms of inflation cost for hodlers, as well as ecologically than PoW.
A: I really honestly think that there are no unsolved research challenges at this point. It's mostly "how do we make this thing more elegant and take up fewer lines of code and have fewer edge cases" on the research side. There is really great work being led by both the EF eWASM team and the Consensys Quilt team to better understand the design space and active build prototypes to vet ideas.
Do you feel this date is realistic and achievable? A: Thanks for noting its informality. We need: long-running test nets however that is defined , formal verification of the deposit contract, and clients to be ready for prime time, but right now it looks like everything will come together in time. We also don't want to rush clients into developing buggy software just to be ready by an arbitrary date. If anything, I think BLS standardisation efforts are the most likely to slow us down.
We as a greater blockchain community are trying very hard to have a standardised signature scheme for better interoperability between all the chains. There is a high degree of consensus on this already, but establishing a new standard is always a slow process. I expect exciting progress to be made in the coming months, but I also expect that the last mile might be long. Early is realistic and still the target. A: I don't think it's productive for us to worry about the absolute numbers at this point; the network will launch, and either the rewards will prove sufficient or they won't.
The other thing worth worrying about is centralization incentives, but that's difficult to work out "in theory land"; much of the result in practice has to do with how lazy people are. A: Composability between shards is definitely unchartered territory but there are reasons to be optimistic: The shards are designed for homogeneity unlike, say, Polkadot or Cosmos to facilitate cross-shard communication. There are design patterns which abstract away the boundaries between shards.
For example, one could consider shards 0 and 1 as a combined data availability substrate for an execution engine which requires more bandwidth. These design patterns will be more easily exploitable in the context of programmable execution engines.
The shards are designed to be friendly to "fast optimistic finality" thanks to shard attestations which are somewhat analogous to block confirmations in the context of Eth1. What this means that is, in practice, the shards may act as one logical blockchain thanks to quick probabilistic finality of individual shards.
The UI layer is also an opportunity to abstract away the boundary between shards. A: My best guess is early See here. A: In order for Eth2 to finalise Eth1, 2 things are needed, Eth2 must vote on Eth1 as is implemented as you point out and Eth1 must change its fork rule to follow the finalised blocks on Eth1.
The latter requirement requires an Eth1 hardfork. It is therefore easier to just have validator finalise the things you mention for now and later on add in Eth1 finalisation. Additionally, it is safer to launch without Eth1 finalisation in case of a Eth2 black-swan event in the early days.
A: It got considerably simpler over the last year. If you do a word count on the spec, it seems to be considerably smaller than the yellow paper at this point. There's a lot of things in eth2 that are much simpler than eth1. But there's definitely lingering complexity and I deeply care about minimizing it. Expect more educational material highlighting the simplicity of the current design. I expect phases 1 and 2 to be lines of code combined assuming WASM as primitive.
That's just the phase 0 consensus deposit contract, beacon chain state transition function, and beacon chain fork choice rule. I understand the point of client diversity but don't you think 6 clients seem to be pushing it?
Supporting so many clients would also divide the resources in terms of funding. Which clients do you see as the geth and parity of eth2. A: A few notes on client diversity: There's more than 6 clients being developed—it's closer to 8. I expect consolidation—a bunch of clients may not survive I expect specialisation—one can focus on the browser e.
Lodestar , resource-constrained devices e. Nimbus , the enterprise e. Artemis , prototyping e. Trinity , etc. A minimum of two production-ready clients are necessary for launch. I expect the first-mover advantage to be strong. All the above have, to an extent, historically happened on Eth1.
I expect a power law distribution, and it's definitely likely that some of the clients will not survive to see significant usage on mainnet. I'm pleased that there are so many great teams doing the hard work, but recently, I've been more focused on finding contributors to do value-add work outside of the core client implementation. Formal verification, academic analysis of protocols, testing, light clients, web3 interfaces and developer tooling, validator clients with great UX that plug into any underlying node, etc, etc.
For example, will Prism ever get merged to Geth? Other than the language Go , Prysm and Geth have very little in common. A: Validators get kicked out when they get slashed. There is another ejection mechanism if your balance goes below 16 ETH from accumulating non-slashing penalties. The minimum being set to 1 ETH currently. There is an additional penalty related to the number of other slashable offenses that have occurred in the recent time period.
If more validators have been slashed recently, you lose more ETH. This highlights the importance of having a discorrelated validator setup from other nodes and potentially having some fault tolerance setup with yourself before you sign things. A: There are micro-penalties for not voting to finalise the same blocks as other validators and the inactivity penalty for offline validators for when the chain is not finalising for an extended period of time.
A: I think you are conflating two thigs here, slashing and the inactivity leak. Inactivity leak If your validator node goes offline for 18 days, and the beacon chain is not finalizing, then your balance will be reduced by "up to Slashing If a validator behaves provably maliciously, then they are slashed by having their balance reduced.
Assuming client software is written well, this should be basically impossible to happen to you. Minimum penalty is 1 ETH, but it goes up linearly in the number of people slashed at the same time as you. See here for more [Carl] Important to note that if you are offline, but the chain is still finalizing you only stand to lose approximately the same as you would have gained.
Another reason to have a discorrelated setup from the rest of the network! A: The execution engine abstraction in phase 2 is quite exciting, taking account abstraction to the next level. It allows for the consensus part of execution to be an ultra thin layer of abstraction on top of data availability.
Assuming WASM as a black box, it may be on the order of lines of code to specify. There's an initial proposal from Vitalik here. The idea is that even the notion of a "transaction" is an application-layer detail which can be specified as WASM code. I understand theres an effort to spread the cost out among various communities, but I think many people feel this might just end up being an expensive science project where the rewards dont justify the costs and if you itemised Eth 2.
I appreciate that the researchers are a tackling a difficult problem with randomness for a blockchain. I actually think the main value of the VDF is that it provides global trustable secure randomness to applications that need it. The other "promise" of VDFs is that they are a new cryptographic building block with the rather unique notion of time.
They can used for proofs of space, proofs of replication, proofs of history, anti-frontrunning, expiring zk-proofs, and hopefully further applications which are hard to predict today. Part of my political platform includes integrating blockchain technology with government operations.
For example, I'd like to see all of America's public records stored on a public, open source, sufficiently decentralized blockchain. Would it make sense to build something like this on top of Ethereum 2. Why or why not? A: Realistically you would want an incentivized data storage platform like Swarm, with hashes of the documents stored on the ethereum blockchain. But I'd recommend thinking harder and trying to figure out how to answer the deeper question "how could we use blockchains as a tool to minimize opportunities for misbehavior in government?
Are there any other researchers on the research team that are as convinced of Ethereum's future, besides Vitalik and Justin of course? No need to call someone out. Just percentages, ie. A: Somewhat ingrained in our culture, the research team doesn't talk much about net worths. Having said that, the research team has a lot of fresh blood e. A: I asked the same question a few days ago.
At this moment, it is still an open question and will likely be until much loser to the time. Obviously having more clients is better, but that should be played off against the launch date. I am currently torn between 2 and 3. At the end of the day, it will come down to who is ready and when.
As i understand, the side with less total eth staked will be slashed, so won't this malicious actor be able to effectively kill the network? One of the beautiful things about PoS is that these attacks can be handled with grace. We, as a community, can go in and hard-fork out the malicious actors so they have no more voting power. The malicious actors just burnt a lot of money to temporally halt a network. My biggest concern is losing ETH while being a well intentioned actor.
A: I hope so! One key component in the incentive design is that penalties for going offline and for being slashed are only high if many other validators go offline at the same time. So any bug that doesn't hit every node at the same time should only cost you a minimal amount. This is not necessarily state size. The current approach to state and state execution is to take a "state-less" approach in which blocks must contain the merkle witnesses of the relevant state to perform the tx executions.
This is reduces the amount of state any consensus node must store, but does bring up other issues about state size, who stores it, how users get it, etc. Much of the state rent research that ledgerwatch has driven in the past year or so will likely come into play. Question 1: Would staking be made easy-to-do, so "ordinary" people can earn interest on their holdings?
Question 2: Does staking pose any risks of losing ETH by accident? Trying to understand if you can stake without any risks unless you "intentionally" try to harm the network eg. I expect a cottage industry will be setup around accessibility. Infrastructure to be built includes staking pools centralised—think Coinbase—as well as decentralised one as well as plug-and-play "validator in a box" solutions. Trying to understand if you can stake without any risks unless you "intentionally" try to harm the network That's definitely the goal.
A: The current approach is to fold eth1 into eth2 as an execution environment. In practice, this will mean that we would need to have a hard fork on the eth1 side to rebalance some gas costs opcodes that read storage or read accounts would see their gas costs increased to , and after that at some point there will be a "flag block height" from which the eth1 state root will be moved into the eth2 system or possibly some one-time processing will be run on the eth1 state to make some optimizations, eg.
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