Go to Content

Unity gain investing summing amplifier calculator

Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation

johannes ambrose bettingen foundation

First Steps towards Foundation of the American. College Ambrose, Stephen E. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and. Discovering the Place of Origin of Johann Frantz Hammer Ambrose, Susan Hedrick XX 18 Bettingen (now Schmelz, Saarland then Lorraine) XVI Ambroggio (1) Ambromovage (1) Ambroschütz (1) Ambrose (9) BETTINGEN (12) Bettinghausen (1) Bettler (25) Fund (2). IN PLAY BETTING AUSTRALIA BETFAIR CASINO

William T. McClure, Jr. He raises good crops of hay and grain and potatoes, has three acres in asparagus, and also has a nice herd of dairy cows, a number of hogs and a large number of chickens. The McClure homestead, which is located midway between Hood River and The Dalles, on the famous Columbia River highway, is finely situated, commanding a magnificent view of the majestic river, and is regarded as one of the best farms in this section of the valley.

McClure and his mother are kindly and hospitable, give their earnest support to all local interests of value to the locality, and throughout the community are held in the highest esteem. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Bolton, Grifford Virgil An interesting story of earnest endeavor, intelligently directed, constitutes the life record of Grifford Virgil Bolton, who was for many years actively and prominently associated with banking interests of The Dalles. Moreover, he was a native son of Oregon and throughout his life was a supporter of all the well devised plans and measures for the upbuilding of his city and state.

Both were natives of Virginia and representatives of old families of that state. At an early day they journeyed westward to become residents of Oregon and took up their abode on a farm in the vicinity of The Dalles on Fifteen Mile creek, where occurred the birth of their son Virgil. He first served in a clerical capacity but bent every energy toward acquainting himself with the banking business in principle and detail and his thoroughness, his industry and loyalty won him promotions from time to time until he soon became cashier and one of the chief executive officers of the institution.

He continued to hold that position until his death, which occurred on the 7th of March, , when he was but thirty-two years of age. Although he passed away at a comparatively early age he had accomplished much more than many a man of twice his years. He had made for himself a most creditable position in financial circles, enjoying an unassailable reputation for business integrity as well as enterprise.

On the 28th of March, , Mr. Bolton was united in marriage to Miss Nellie J. French and they became the parents of two daughters: Carmel French, who is now the wife of Frank A. Ryder of Portland: and Nonearle French, who is at home with her mother. Bolton was always keenly interested in public affairs at The Dalles and recognition of his public spirit and his devotion to the general good was manifest in his election to the mayoralty.

He belonged to the Masonic fraternity of which he was an exemplary representative and his entire life was characterized by those qualities which in every land and clime awaken confidence and respect. His widow is now living at Alexandra Court, in Portland and is well known in the best circles of the Rose City.

Married June 25, , to Agnes L. Educated at the common schools of Lafayette, Ore. Louis, Mo. Admitted to the Supreme Court of Oregon in Practiced law in Yamhill County until , when he removed to The Dalles and practiced his profession until May , when he was appointed Judge of Seventh Judicial District of Oregon, and has served ever since.

Member K. Thirty-six years of his life have been spent in Wasco county, which numbers him among its foremost agriculturists, and his activities have also been of benefit to The Dalles. There were seven children in the family, and Thomas Brogan is the only one now living. He was reared on his father's farm and received a limited education. Leaving home when a boy of twelve, he came to the United States alone in and obtained work in the coal mines of Pennsylvania. In he went to Liverpool, England, and for six months was on a sailing vessel bound for Australia.

He landed in Melbourne, but soon after made the voyage to New Zealand, and was there engaged in mining for five years, developing a claim which yielded considerable gold. Brogan then returned to Australia and devoted his attention to the sheep and cattle business.

He also took contracts for the construction of buildings and roads and prospered in all of his ventures. In he disposed of his business in Australia and returned to the United States, identifying his interests with those of the Pacific northwest. He purchased a large ranch in Wasco county and devoted his energies to the cultivation of the soil and the raising of livestock. Success attended his well directed labors and from time to time he increased his holdings, which now comprise sixteen thousand acres of land in Wasco county.

He is the largest individual landowner in the county, and runs about four thousand head of sheep and a large band of cattle, but the management of the place is now intrusted to his son, John Brogan. The father's various ranches are improved with good buildings and contain sixty-seven miles of fencing. The work is facilitated by modern equipment and the most advanced methods are utilized in cultivating the land and caring for the stock. Brogan puts up six hundred tons of hay and alfalfa each year, and all of the grain and hay grown on the land is fed to the stock.

In he moved to The Dalles, purchasing a desirable home on Webster street, and also owns several lots in the city. He is the largest stockholder of the Citizens National Bank of The Dalles, of which he was one of the organizers, but has steadfastly refused to become an officer of the institution, feeling that the preference should be given to a younger man.

Collopy, who was born in that country. Her parents, William and Elizabeth O'Brien Collopy, were natives of Ireland and became pioneer settlers of New Zealand, in which they spent the remainder of their lives. The father followed agricultural pursuits and was a prosperous stock raiser. Collopy were born twelve children and three are now living: Bridget M. Brogan became the parents of twelve children, six of whom survive.

Mary was born in New Zealand and has remained at home. Bridget, also a native of New Zealand, became the wife of J. Robinson and has a daughter, Lillian, who is now Mrs. Ned Wyke of Portland, Oregon. John was born in New Zealand, and resides in Antelope, Oregon. Susan is likewise a native of New Zealand, and has become the wife of Frank Weiss. Katherine was born in Wasco county, and is part owner of a greenhouse at The Dalles.

Frances Grace, also a native of Wasco county, is now Mrs. John Becker. She resides in Woodburn and is the mother of one child, Thomas Joseph Becker. For more than a half century Mr. Brogan have journeyed together through life and in they celebrated their golden wedding anniversary. On that happy occasion a banquet was held at Hotel Dalles and there Mr. Brogan entertained about forty friends, from whom they received many beautiful gifts as well as congratulations.

Among the treasured possessions of Mr. Brogan is a rare onyx clock, tendered him by the premier of New Zealand and several of his most intimate friends at the time of his departure for the United States. Brogan exercises his right of franchise in support of the candidates and tenets of the republican party, and his public spirit has been demonstrated by effective work in behalf of good roads and schools.

His has been a picturesque career, replete with interesting experiences. He enjoys life and is esteemed for the qualities to which he owes his success. In May, , Mr. Brogan with Katherine and Frances, took a trip to Ireland, revisiting the old home. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Browne, Dr. He is now a successful chiropractor of The Dalles, where he is accorded a liberal patronage.

His parents were Christopher C. The Brownes were of old Pennsylvania stock and the great-grandfather of the Doctor became a pioneer of Missouri. The Mason family came from New England ancestry and were pioneers of Indiana. Christopher C. Browne removed with his family to Oregon when his son Daniel was but a small boy and settled in Salem. The latter acquired his preliminary education in the public schools of Salem and afterward pursued an academic course at Dallas, while his professional training was received in the Pacific Chiropractic College at Portland.

Following his graduation he took up active professional work in that city and there remained from until During his stay in Portland he was for three years secretary of the Oregon Chiropractic Association and published a magazine called The Drugless Review, devoted to the school of healing which he represents. He was one of a committee appointed to draft a bill legalizing the practice of chiropractic, which was passed by the legislature in His work in that connection required so much of his time that he was forced to permit The Drugless Review to die just as it was getting on a paying basis.

This unselfishness on his part is but an index of the character of the man. In Dr. Ingram, who had built up an extensive business in The Dalles, invited Dr. Browne was united in marriage to Miss Almona R. Daniels, a daughter of Francis M. Daniels, who was a merchant. They have one child, Elizabeth, a student in the Junior high school in The Dalles. Fraternally Dr. Browne is connected with the Elks and with the Knights of Pythias. He holds to the higest standards in his profession and his ability and enterprise have brought him prominently to the front.

Robert R. Butler, a member of one of the leading law firms of The Dalles, has become well known through his service as circuit judge, as state senator, and as one of the political leaders of Oregon. He was born September 24, , in Johnson county, Tennessee, and is a son of Dr. William H. One of Mr.

Butler's ancestors figured prominently in events which shaped the early history of Johnson county and the town of Butler was named in his honor. Colonel Roderick Randon Butler, the father of Dr. William R. Grayson, the maternal grandfather of Robert H. Butler, was also a gallant officer in the Union army and rose to the rank of colonel.

Butler received the M. He is a physician of high standing and draws his patients from a wide area. To Dr. Butler were born ten children: Mrs. Baker, who lives in the state of Washington; Robert R. Sproles, who resides in North Carolina; C. James Rivers, of North Carolina. Butler was reared in the town of Butler, which has been the home of the family for generations, and supplemented his public school training by attendance at the Holly Spring College.

He received the degree of LL. For three years he followed his profession at Mountain City, Tennessee, and in came to Oregon, locating in Condon, Gilliam county, where he practiced for five years. His legal acumen led to his election to the bench and during and he was circuit judge of Sherman, Wheeler and Gilliam counties.

To each case brought before his tribunal he gave deep thought and study and the justice of his rulings proved his moral worth. As mayor of Condon he also made an excellent record and since has been a resident of The Dalles. He has a comprehensive knowledge of law and displays marked skill in its exposition. In he formed a partnership with Samuel E. Van Vactor, who is the senior member of the firm, and a large and important clientele denotes the confidence reposed in their ability as advocates and counselors.

Butler was married in and has a daughter, Elizabeth Annabel. She was born at The Dalles, June 30, , and is attending St. Helen's Hall in Portland, Oregon. A power in the ranks of the republican party, Mr. Butler was chosen presidential elector-at-large and in was made messenger to Washington, D.

In he was elected state senator without opposition and from until was a member of that law-making body. In he again became presidential elector for Oregon and in was recalled to the office of state senator. He served from until and exerted his influence in behalf of all constructive legislation. Butler is a Kiwanian and a past chancellor of the Knights of Pythias. His well developed powers have brought him to the front in his profession and the firmness, frankness and strength of his character have established him high in public regard.

His paternal grandfather was a native of Virginia and the family were among the early pioneers of Illinois. The Coy family was of Quaker stock and numbered among the earliest residents of Pennsylvania. In Polk Butler removed with his family to Oregon, settling at Dufur, Wasco county, at which time Roy was a lad of but four years. He acquired his education in the graded schools of Dufur and in the high school at The Dalles.

When quite young he entered into the mercantile business as a clerk in a general store at Boyd, Wasco county, and afterward turned his attention to ranching on Eight Mile creek, where he secured four hundred and forty acres, on which he planted an orchard and also engaged in raising cattle for the next ten years.

He likewise became interested in the mercantile business at Boyd during the same period. Butler was elected to the office of county commissioner and occupied that position for four years. In the meantime he took up his residence at The Dalles and upon the expiration of his term as commissioner he established the insurance agency which he still conducts.

He is the representative of the Oregon Fire Relief Association for the district which embraces the counties of Morrow, Gilliam, Wasco, Hood River and Sherman and has placed his company upon a sound basis in this territory, having developed a business of gratifying and substantial proportions. Butler was married to Miss Ethel Southern, a daughter of C. Southern, a pioneer farmer of Wasco county. They have two children: Melva May and Roy Dale, both high school pupils.

Butler has a sister, Mrs. Edward Griffin, of Wasco county, and two brothers: the Rev. Butler, a missionary in South Africa and E. Butler, living at The Dalles. Butler gives his political allegiance to the democratic party, yet he cannot be said to be a politician in the sense of office seeking.

The only public office he has filled besides that of county commissioner was that of postmaster at Boyd. He is an active member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and has filled all of the chairs in the local organization. The Butler family has long been represented in Oregon, for Roy D. Butler is a nephew of Daniel Butler, who came to this state in the '40s and is frequently mentioned in history as one of the founders of the state and as a fearless Indian fighter.

Under other conditions Roy D. Butler is just as loyal to the best interests of Oregon and is justly accounted one of the representative citizens of The Dalles. Collector of Internal Revenue for the District and State of Oregon, is one of those quiet, unassuming gentlemen, whom we sometimes meet in the walks of public life, and realize the fact that in his case at least the office has sought the man, not the man the office, as is too generally the case.

He is a native of Michigan and was born in He came to Oregon in and read law with Hon. Wilson, afterwards Representative in Congress from this State. He was admitted to the bar in and opened an office at Salem. He was a member of the House from Marion County in , and in was elected State Senator from the same county. In he received the appointment of United States District Attorney.

At the expiration of his term of service in this capacity in , owing to failing health, he removed to Eastern Washington Territory, and there engaged in the stock business until , when he moved to The Dalles, and, in partnership with Hon. Dunbar, resumed the practice of law. In he was elected Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket and was a participant in the memorable Electoral College of that year, when poor Cronin - peace to his ashes - was so prominent a factor, and when Oregon's vote elected President Hayes.

In May, , he received his present appointment. Cartwright is a gentleman who is highly esteemed by all who know him and is regarded as a man of sterling integrity. He is tall and spare built, smooth face, save the mustache, sharp features, clear peaceful eye, and black hair. He is a warm personal friend and one that never forgets a favor.

He is courteous, genial and generous. As a public officer, he is attentive and obliging and in every way efficient. Helm, of the M. Team] Cates, Daniel L. Conscientious and efficient, Daniel L. Cates has thoroughly demonstrated his worth as a public servant and for eleven years has been city recorder of The Dalles. He is a loyal Oregonian and a member of one of the honored, pioneer families of the state.

The following account of his career was written by Fred Lockley and published in the Oregon Journal under date of November 29, 'I was born in a log cabin on the Long Tom, near Starr's Point, in Benton county, May 7, ,' said Mr. His father's name was Alexander Cates. His mother's maiden name was Nancy Phipps and she was also a Kentuckian. My father left the Blue Grass state in , when he was nineteen years of age, and went to Missouri with an uncle, John Newton.

She was a daughter of Daniel Grice, who went from that state to Kentucky and later located in Linn county, Missouri. Father and his brother-in-law, Daniel Grice, built houses. In those days all lumber, including the flooring, was dressed by hand. Father had taken up a place in Linn county and in addition to working at his trade, raised corn and tobacco. Flournoy and his relatives. They took the usual emigrant route during the first part of the trip and went by way of the cut-off to Fort Hall.

The Nemaha river was crossed on rafts built by members of the party and at Salt creek they were detained for two days. There were few accidents on the trip, though in the early part of it an exciting incident occurred in the Pawnee country. One morning a man came riding toward them at top speed on a fine grey horse and warned them of Indians who had attacked a train in advance of them. Three parties of emigrants had left Missouri at about the same time, the Flournoy train, the one attacked by Indians and what was called the Ohio train.

The last consisted of forty men without a woman or child among them. There were two Indians in sight in an elevated position, signaling to the band that led in the attack and informing them of the movements of the whites. The Ohio train rushed in from the rear on horseback and soon reached the Indians. The wagons of the Flournoy train were placed in a double row and the party advanced as rapidly as possible.

After robbing the women of their jewelry and taking as much food and clothing as they could lay hands on, the Indians escaped and no one was injured. The Flournoy train followed the route to the crossing of the Portneuf, which runs into the Snake river, and then traveled to the south, crossing the Raft river.

As they followed its course they came to that remarkable creation of nature, the Thousand Spring valley, containing those famous soda springs which vary in temperature from boiling hot to ice cold and which cover an area of several square miles. Proceeding through what was afterwards called the Landers cut-off, they came out on the Green river and followed its course to St. Mary's river. After passing the three Humboldt lakes they 1 were warned by a note tacked up by the roadside of danger from Indians.

Two men had been killed and a little farther on the body of an Indian was found lying in the road. At the foot of the last lake two roads separate, one leading to the Carson river and the other to the Truckee river. The party followed the Truckee road and about September 17, , camped where the Donner party endured their sufferings and where some met their tragic deaths in They could see plainly where the trees had been cut down and limbs cut off of others ten or twelve feet above the ground, showing how deep the snow must have been when they camped on it.

Later he took up a claim on Poor Man creek, finding dirt which paid him thirty dollars a day with pick and pan. After working the claim for a month the heavy snow drove him out and he went back to Nevada City, where he spent the winter. Next spring he found a claim from which. In company with three other miners he engaged in prospecting on Kanaha creek.

They struck a claim where they took out fifty dollars a day. As soon as their grub was gone they went back to Nevada City and brought out twelve hundred pounds of supplies on seven pack horses. They found their claim had been jumped, so they struck out down the creek and struck another claim even richer than the first. On July 4, , the four of them took out over six hundred dollars. They averaged about one hundred dollars a day. My father's partners became dissatisfied and thought they could find a richer ground, so he bought them out and worked the claim until late in the fall of Downieville, the nearest post office, was twelve miles distant by mountain trail.

He worked on a hotel and was paid ten dollars a day. After the hotel was built he went to Sacramento and from there to San Francisco, where he bought a ticket for Panama. He had to pay sixteen dollars for the use of a mule to ride twenty-six miles across the isthmus to connect with a boat. After he had ridden about two-thirds of the way he overtook a miner, who offered him eight dollars for the use of the mule for the remaining eight miles, so father walked the rest of the way.

He had to pay a fare of ten dollars on a rowboat which took him to the Atlantic side of the isthmus. The natives were having a revolution and told the Californians to keep off the streets so they wouldn't get hurt. However, the Americans wanted to see what was going on, so one of them was killed, as well as a number of natives.

The American consul sent out to the Cherokee and Ohio, which were anchored in the stream, and got a brass six-pounder and an iron cannon. He put these so he could sweep the street and told the natives that if they fought any more or killed any more Americans he would turn the cannon loose, so they decided to quit fighting. He bought a steerage ticket for New York for fifty dollars.

The first cabin ticket was seventy-five dollars. After he got on the boat he paid the purser five dollars extra to sit at the first cabin table and have a cabin like the first class passengers. The Ohio was a sidewheeler and there were about two hundred returning gold miners aboard. At Havana they transferred to the Georgia for New Orleans. In the Crescent city he paid sixteen dollars for a ticket to St. Louis and made the trip of about twelve-hundred miles on the Patrick Henry. At St. Louis he took passage on a small boat called the Lewis F.

Linn, for Brunswick, the great tobacco trading point on the Missouri, traveling with Washington Leach, who had been his companion in the mines of California and on the returning sea voyage. At Brunswick he hired a rig to drive to Linneus, where he had left mother. When he arrived there he found that his father-in-law had sold out and that mother had gone to Jive with Uncle Newton.

He hired a man to drive him out to the Newton place. He bought a house and lot for three hundred dollars and got a job as carpenter at a dollar and a quarter a day. In the party were father's cousin, Ambrose Newton, who brought his wife and three children. He had two wagons, with four yoke of oxen to each, and was accompanied by three young men, who came along to work for their board. Father had one wagon, three yoke of oxen and two cows. In his wagon were himself, mother, Sarah, the baby, and a young man named Washington Ward, who went along to work for his hoard.

The members of the train chose father as their captain because of his previous experience in crossing the plains. The emigrants drove to St. Joseph, Missouri, and thence up the river, which they crossed at Council Bluffs. They took the south side of the Platte.

A large party of Pawnee Indians accompanied them almost to Ash Hollow. There my father and Mr. Wiley went on a hunting expedition. Father killed a big buffalo and they loaded their horses with meat. When they were hunting a hail storm came up which was so severe that the cattle couldn't face it. They turned around and drifted with the storm. On the Bear river in Utah six saddle horses were stolen. Father lost a good horse. He said that when he and Fowler were looking for the horses they met an Indian on a cayuse,while his squaw was mounted on a big roan horse.

Father had a rifle with inlaid silver work and the Indian tried to take it. Father pulled out his Colt revolver and the Indian changed his mind, and the last father saw of him and the squaw they were making their horses go as fast as they could. The next day the party arrived at Steamboat Springs, where an Englishman had a trading station.

After crossing the Malheur river they went down the Snake and struck Burnt river at a point where Huntington was afterward built. They passed through the Powder River valley below the place where Baker City is now located and there father suffered from blood poisoning, which endangered his life.

After coming into the Grande Ronde valley they passed Medical lake and in the Blue mountains stayed over night at Lee's encampment, now Bingham Springs. Then they proceeded down the Wild Horse through what is now the Umatilla Indian reservation, finding Indians there who were raising corn and potatoes. After reaching Deschutes they made their way down Ten-Mile creek and thence to Tygh valley.

They passed through the Barlow tollgate and down Laurel Hill, soon afterward coming to the Big Sandy valley. On September 9 they reached Foster's famous ranch and on the 11th crossed the Willamette at Portland on a capstan and two horses. In father and Fred Flora took a contract to get out timbers and build a barn for Captain Doty in Yamhill county. Father next built a granary for Mr. McLeod on Tualatin plains. They paid him seven dollars a day and he took his pay in flour, which he sold in Portland.

From Tualatin plains he moved to the Long Tom, in Beaten county, where he bought, for three hundred dollars, a quarter section. Forty acres of the tract had been fenced and there was a good house on the place. Father bought a land entry of one hundred and sixty acres for one hundred and twenty dollars and took up the adjoining quarter section.

The first loom on the Long Tom was constructed by father, who built it for Mrs. He was paid forty dollars for the job. Ferguson wove homespun cloth. He bought a new wagon, a span of mules and ninety head of cattle. He hired John Florence to drive the stock over the Barlow trail to the Dennis Maloney place, near the present site of Dufur. Father traded our place to Mrs.

Upton for two large mares, Pet and Pigeon. Afterward father moved to Eight-Mile creek, purchasing a farm from "Big Steve" Edwards, and there mother died in the fall of , leaving two sons and two daughters, one a baby less than a year old.

The hard winter of nearly wiped father off the map financially. He had only thirty head of stock left when the snow went off in the spring. Susan Griffin, my mother's sister, died shortly alter we children went there. Father and Fred Flora had started in the spring of with a herd of cattle for the Orofino mines in Idaho. My sister did the housework. When J. Broadwell bought the place my sister Sarah and I stayed with him for two years.

My brother Willie went to Idaho with my father, who purchased a mine in the Boise basin and later moved to Rocky Bar, in Alturas county, that state. He was absent two years and brought home fourteen hundred dollars. He built a mill on Fifteen-Mile creek near the Meadows, also owning a mill on the Columbia, opposite Wind river, and this he later sold to Joseph T. While operating the plant he built a small steamboat to handle the lumber.

After disposing of his mills father worked for a time at his trade and aided in constructing the shoe factory in North Dalles. In father married Mrs. Elizabeth Herbert, a widow, who had two children: Mrs. Jane Sherer, deceased; and George A.

Herbert, now a resident of Baker, Oregon. The mother of these children passed away at The Dalles and father's death occurred at Cascade Locks, Oregon, in My sister Sarah, the oldest of the family, was born in Missouri in On May 10, , she became the wife of William Frizzell, and her demise occurred in at Cascade Locks. My brother William was born in Benton county, Oregon, in and is now living in Oakland, California. I was the third child and my full name is Daniel Lycurgus Cates.

My sister Susan was born February 14, , in Wasco county, Oregon. She became the wife of W. Wilson, a well known attorney of Portland, Oregon, and died February 14, Cates attended the public schools at The Dalles and one of his instructors was Professor S.

From until he was in the employ of his father, who at that time was operating a saw mill above Cascade Locks, where the town of Wyeth is now located. His lumber yard at The Dalles was managed by Daniel L.

Cates, who afterward became a bookkeeper for John H. Larsen, a dealer in wool and hides. Cates remained until , when he was appointed a deputy under George Herbert, sheriff of Wasco county, and acted in that capacity for four years. In he was elected sheriff and served for two years, thoroughly justifying the trust reposed in him.

In August, , he located at Cascade Locks, opening a general store, which he conducted during the construction of the locks. About five hundred men were at work and in the locks were completed by J. At that time Mr. Cates disposed of the business and established a drug store, of which he was the proprietor for two years. Crossing the Columbia river, he purchased a tract of three hundred and twenty acres in Skamania county, Washington, and applied himself to the task of clearing the land.

He cut down the timber, which he sawed into logs, and disposed of them at a good figure. A few years later he sold the ranch and in November, , returned to The Dalles. Prosperity had attended his various undertakings and for a time he lived retired.

In he was prevailed upon to reenter the arena of public affairs and has since been city recorder. His duties are discharged with characteristic thoroughness and fidelity and his continued retention in the office proves that his services are appreciated. On October 9, , Mr. Cates is the ninth in line of descent from Jan Stryker, who was born in Holland in and emigrated from Ruinen, a village in the province of Drenthe, with his wife, two sons and four daughters, arriving at New Amsterdam in The mother of these children was Lambertje Seubering, who died several years after the family came to America.

She survived her husband, who was a man of prominence in colonial days. In he was elected chief magistrate of Midworet and according to the Colonial History of New York" he was a member of the embassy sent from New Amsterdam to the lord mayors in Holland. The history also states that he became a representative in the general assembly on April 10, , a member of the Hempstead convention of , and was commissioned captain of a military company on October 25, His brother, who also came to this country, was named Jacobus Garretsen Stryker.

Jan Stryker and his first wife had a large family. She died June 17, , and his demise occurred June 11, He was high sheriff of Kings county, Long Island; judge of the court from until , and was made captain of a foot company in On June 1, , he purchased four thousand acres of land on Millstone river in Somerset county, New Jersey. It does not appear that he ever lived on this property but his sons, Jacob and Barends, and his grandsons, the four sons of Jan, removed from Flatbush to New Jersey.

Pieter and Annetje Barends Stryker had eleven children. Jan Stryker, their third child, was born August 6, , and in married Margarita Schenck. She was baptized June 2, , and married February 17, Her death occurred July 15, , and her husband passed away August 17, He was a member of the Kings County militia.

Jan Stryker had nine children by his first wife and five by the second. Pieter Stryker, the eldest child of his first wife, was born September 14, , at Flatbush, Long island, and about married Antje Deremer. Death summoned him on December 28, He had eleven children by his first wife and one by the second. His son, John Stryker, the eighth child of his first union, was born March 2, , and became captain of the Somerset County militia but was afterwards attached to the state troops.

His marriage with Lydia Cornell was solemnized November 13, , and on March 25, , he responded to the final summons. His wife was born March 15, , and died November 4, John and Lydia Cornell Stryker were the parents of ten children. James I. She was born November 5, , and died about in Cayuga county, New York, while his demise occurred December 14, Their family numbered eight children. Stryker died December 2, , in Vancouver, Washington, and her husband's death occurred in that city on December 21, In their family were four daughters, of whom Alice is the eldest.

By her marriage to Daniel L. Cates she became the mother of four children. The fourth child died in infancy. Cates takes a keen interest in fraternal affairs and is a charter member of The Dalles Lodge of the Knights of Pythias, in which he has filled all of the chairs. In all matters of citizenship he is loyal, progressive and public-spirited and his personal qualities are such as make for popularity. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Chrisman, Levi No public official of Wasco county enjoys a higher reputation than Levi Chrisman, who has served continuously as sheriff for a period of twenty-two years, and represents the third generation of the family in Oregon.

In , when their son Campbell E. Margaret Chrisman there passed away in and her husband remained on the ranch until He then sold the place and came to The Dalles, where he lived retired until his death a few years later. Campbell E. Chrisman was educated in the public schools of Dayton and remained at home until , when he moved to The Dalles. For a time he leased the ranch near Dufur and about purchased the property.

He cultivated the farm until and then sold the tract. Returning to The Dalles, he became a dealer in grain and conducted a grocery and a feed store. Catering to both the wholesale and retail trades, he established a large patronage and continued the business until , when he retired.

He served on the school board and manifested a deep interest in matters touching the welfare and progress of his community. Her parents, John E. Her father was a Christian minister and one of the early circuit riders of Oregon, traveling on horseback to isolated districts in order to spread the Gospel. He passed away early in the '70s and his widow survived him by ten years.

The demise of Campbell E. Chrisman occurred May 15, , at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Taylor, a resident of The Dalles, and on February 20, , his widow was called to her final rest. To their union were born seven children. Lulu, the eldest, was born on the homestead near Dufur and is the widow of Henry Taylor. She has two children: Mrs.

Lulu P. Hugh Chrisman is sheriff of Sherman county and has been the incumbent of the office for eight years. Levi is the next of the family and his brother Frank lives in Oakland, California. Emma, the seventh in order of birth, died in infancy.

For four years he was a railroad employe and in ventured in business for himself at The Dalles. In partnership with his brother Frank he opened a meat market, which he conducted successfully for sixteen years, also dealing in live stock. He was elected sheriff of Wasco county on the republican ticket in and his long retention in this office is an eloquent testimonial to the quality of his service. In the discharge of his important duties he is conscientious, efficient and fearless and during his tenure of office the percentage of crime in the country has been appreciably lowered.

His record is unsullied and in length of service has never been equaled by any other sheriff in the state. Chrisman married Miss Edna C. Martin, who was born in Illinois, and died February 13, She had become the mother of five children. Edna, the first born, is the wife of Robert P. Johnson, of Portland, Oregon, and has two daughters, Margaret and Virginia.

The other children of Mr. Chrisman are: Mrs. Neva M. Rasmussen, of Seattle, Washington; Robert, who was admitted to the bar in and is practicing in Wallowa, Oregon; Cecil, who is a junior at the University of Oregon and is preparing to enter the legal profession; and Elsie, who was graduated from the high school at The Dalles and is taking a course in a Portland business college.

The children are natives of The Dalles and all have received the benefit of a good education. In the local lodge of the Knights of Pythias he has filled all of the chairs and is also affiliated with the Woodmen of the World and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks.

He has a wide acquaintance and draws his friends from all walks of life, possessing those qualities which inspire strong and enduring regard. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Clausen, F. Agricultural progress in the Columbia River Valley has received marked impetus from the enterprising spirit and systematic labors of F. Clausen, a pioneer wheat grower of Wasco county and one of its large land owners. Having accumulated a sum more than sufficient for his needs, he is spending the evening of life in ease and comfort and resides in an attractive home at The Dalles.

He was born February 1, , in Kolding, Denmark, and his parents, Nicolai and Karen Clausen, were life-long residents of that country. His father's demise occurred in and the mother long survived him, passing away in They had eight children, four of whom attained years of maturity: F. Clausen received a common school education and laid aside his textbooks at the age of sixteen, as his assistance was needed on the home farm. His country was engaged in war with Germany, which took the province of Schleswig-Holstein as indemnity from Denmark.

The family lived near the boundary line dividing the two countries and two brothers of F. Clausen served in the Danish army. Being unwilling to swear allegiance to Germany, he left his native land and on April 7, , sailed from Hamburg on a vessel which bore him to New York city.

He then purchased a ticket for San Francisco, California, and for a period of four years was engaged in dairying near Sacramento. In partnership with his brother James, he operated a wheat ranch in the Sacramento valley for two years and then decided to migrate to Oregon.

Selling his interest in the ranch to his brother, he came to The Dalles in the spring of and soon afterward filed on a homestead on the Deschutes river, twenty miles southeast of the town. He proved up on the land and later secured a timber claim. As fast as his resources permitted Mr. Clausen increased his holdings and is now the owner of three thousand acres of land in Wasco county. A tract of one thousand acres is devoted to the growing of grain and the balance is used for pasture and stock farming.

Endowed with keen powers of discernment, Mr. Clausen was the first man to recognize the fact that grain could be produced in this locality and the old cattle and sheep raisers were averse to the idea, saying that the land could be utilized only for grazing purposes owing to the dryness of the soil. In he planted his first crop of wheat, which was destroyed by grasshoppers, but the next season he had better luck and in forty-five years of farming has had only one failure.

His equipment is up-to-date and the fields are divided by well kept fences. A modern house has been erected on the ranch, which is further improved with substantial barns and other outbuildings. The place is well irrigated and water from the spring is pumped to the house and other buildings.

Clausen follows diversified farming and has found that the best results are obtained by summer fallowing. The soil yields good crops and he keeps about fifty head of horses for the farm work. His cattle and hogs are of high grade and he owns about one hundred and twenty-five head of stock, which he allows to run in the wheat fields after the grain is harvested.

Every detail of the work has been carefully planned and the ranch has proven a profitable investment because it is operated on an economic basis. Clausen is a firm believer in scientific methods of a culture and has demonstrated their value as factors in productiveness. In he leased the ranch to his sons, James and Otto, who are successfully managing the place and also own valuable stock farms. Since his retirement Mr. Clausen has lived at The Dalles in a desirable home, which he purchased in , and during the busy season supervises the work on his farm.

He has proven his faith in the future of The Dalles by judicious investments in real estate and is a stockholder in the Wrentham and Columbia Warehouse Companies, while he also owns a half-interest in two substantial business blocks, which were recently erected in the city. It was during their honeymoon that Mr. Clausen made the trip to Oregon, traveling to The Dalles in a wagon drawn by four horses. Theirs proved an ideal union, which was terminated by the death of Mrs.

Clausen on October 17, In their family were eight children, all of whom were born on the old homestead in Wasco county and received liberal educational advantages. Arthur, the first born, died at the age of six years. James is married and has one child, Edna. Cora is deceased. Edna completed a course in The Dalles high school and was graduated from a nurses' training school maintained by one of the largest hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio.

She is anaesthesian at The Dalles Hospital and also acts as housekeeper for her father. Otto is married and has two children, Fred and Virginia. During the World war he enlisted in the United States Engineers Corps, becoming sergeant of his company, and later was promoted to the position of chief engineer. He spent two years overseas and is now filling a responsible position in Chicago, Illinois.

Emma supplemented her high school education by attendance at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, from which she was graduated. For two years she was a student at the University of Washington and is now dietician at Dornbacher Hospital in Portland. Clara, the youngest child, died at the age of seven years. His fraternal relations also extend to the Woodmen of the World. For eight years he was one of the commissioners of Wasco county and during his tenure of office the county built and paid for the finest courthouse in the state, with the exception of the one in Portland.

A strong advocate of educational advancement, Mr. Clausen was a member of the school board of his district for twenty-four years and has always evinced a keen desire to cooperate in movements for the general good. A man of stable purpose and marked strength of character, he has sown wisely and well and his life has been a succession of harvests.

For nearly a half century he has resided in Wasco county, where he has a wide acquaintance, and enjoys to the fullest extent the esteem and confidence of all with whom he has been associated. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Collins, John Wesley John Wesley Collins is one of the most active young business men of The Dalles, where he is conducting a prosperous wall paper and paint business. He was born in Jefferson county, Tennessee, in , his parents being William H.

John W. Collins' first work was in a general merchandise store in his home town, but he did not find the pursuit to his liking and remained in that employ for only thirteen months. He acted in that capacity for six years. In he determined to start out in business on his own account and having saved considerable money from his earnings and made many friends in the trade, he looked around for a location and after visiting The Dalles at once decided to cast his lot in the "cherry town," and renting a store, established business here.

After paying his rent and equipping his place he had left as a working capital just one hundred dollars, yet by he was the owner of the only wall paper and decorating concern in the city and was occupying a handsome store on the main business street, with a stock of wall paper and paint fully paid for and worth seven thousand dollars. Moreover, he is giving employment to eight expert painters and paper hangers. He takes contracts for all kinds of painting and decorating work and has broadened the scope of his business by establishing a picture frame department.

He also sells paint and paper and many decorative articles and the business is a growing one. Collins was married to Miss Ruby S. Pickens, a native of North Carolina, whose parents are now farming in Oregon. They have two children, Louelder and William Wesley. Collins is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and is active in support of all progressive civic interests.

Fraternally he is an Odd Fellow and a Yeoman. He enjoys the high regard of his brethren in these orders and has won a well deserved reputation as a reliable and progressive business man and valuable citizen. Among the most interesting features of the Oregon Daily Journal are the articles of Fred Lockley, who wrote the following account of the life of John B.

I asked of Mr. McLoughlin sent him up to Stuart lake in British Columbia, to bring down the furs from their post there. He was given command of ten three-ton boats. He piloted the leading boat himself and the others followed the lead of his boat. These boats made the round trip each summer from Stuart lake to Fort Vancouver.

Coming down the Columbia, they shot the rapids at the cascades, but on the return trip they had to make a portage there. They carried their loads around the cascades at what is now Cascade locks and towed their boats or carried them around the swift water.

At the big eddy, sometimes called The Dalles rapids, they made another portage, carrying their loads clear beyond Celilo falls. They put their boats into the river above Celilo and paddled them to the mouth of the Okanogan, where they put their trade goods on pack horses and took them over the divide to the waters of the Frazier river, where they had boats in which they took the goods to Stuart lake.

Father stayed with this work for some years - in fact, until , when they transferred him to Fort Walla Walla, now called Wallula. Spaulding down the river to Fort Vancouver. This was immediately after the killing of Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Whitman and the other white people at Wai-lat-pu mission. The Indians fired at my father and the other two men from the bank but did not hit them. They brought the news of the massacre to the Willamette valley, and soon the whole valley was humming with excitement like a hive of angry bees.

My father and Champagne joined their own people from French prairie to go up to Wai-lat-pu to punish the Indians. They fought with the volunteers from French prairie until the Cayuse war was over. She was at Dr. McLoughlin's mill on the island at what they sometimes called Willamette falls when I was born on April 27, , and when I was a few weeks old she returned to our place here.

My mother's name was Sophia Berchier. She pronounced it "Bushey. She lived to be ninety-four years old. When she was coming here by the old Hudson's Bay trail my brother Ed, who retired from the Portland police force recently after forty years of service, was born. The Indians attacked the party when Ed was one day old, so mother had to grab him up, catch her horse and get away from there as fast as the animal could travel.

In the fall of he purchased from the Hudson's Bay Company a boat which he operated on the river between The Dalles and Fort Vancouver. He took emigrants from The Dalles to Oregon City while the men of the party drove their cattle overland to the Willamette valley. Father had the contract to transport the soldiers from Vancouver to The Dalles in , when the United States government built the fort here. After this for three years he stayed on his land at Crates Point and farmed the place.

In the summer of he operated his boat between Celilo and Wallula. Father acted as pilot on the first boat than ran from Celilo to Wallula and thence to the mouth of the Snake river. I believe Captain Gray was skipper of the boat. After serving as pilot on this river for a while father returned to his ranch, later going to the newly discovered gold mines in Idaho, near where Lewiston now is. Father and mother had fourteen children, seven of whom are now living.

In 1 was riding for Ben Snipe, whose horses ranged all over the Yakima country and along the Columbia. For example, we can report on a congress on Cusanus that took place in St. Petersburg, Russia, on September , Nicolai de Cusa Opera Omnia. Heidelberg, Februar Bellitto, Christopher M. Izbicki, and Gerald Christianson, eds. New York: Paulist Press, Bond, H. Lawrence, trans. Nicholas of Cusa: Selected Spiritual Writings. Casarella, Peter J. Cusanus: The Legacy of Learned Ignorance.

Cassirer, Ernst. Individuum und Kosmos in der Pilosophie der Renaissance. Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner, ; 2nd ed. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Cohen, Hermann. Berlin, ; Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, Duclow, Donald F.

Flasch, Kurt. Nicolaus Cusanus. Munich: Verlag C. Beck, Hallauer, Hermann J. Haubst, Rudolf. Hofmann, Josepha, trans. Nikolaus von Kues. Die mathematischen Schriften. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, Hopkins, Jasper, trans. Loveland, CO: Arthur J. Izbicki, Thomas M. Nicholas of Cusa: Writings on Church and Reform. Jedin, Hubert. A History of the Council of Trent, vol. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. Meier-Oeser, Stephan. Nikolaus von Kues, Skizze einer Biographie. Nicholas of Cusa: A Sketch for a Biography, trans.

David Crowner and Gerald Christianson. Miller, Clyde Lee. Reading Cusanus. Metaphor and Dialectic in a Conjectural Universe. Sansoni, Piccolomini, Aeneas Sylvius. Izbicki, Gerald Christianson, and Philip Krey. Thurner, Martin, ed. Band Tritz, Sylvie. Yamaki, Kazuhiko, ed. Izbicki, eds. Nicholas of Cusa on Christ and the Church. Bellitto, eds. Essays Dedicated to the Memory of F. Edward Cranz, Thomas P. McTighe and Charles Trinkaus. Ideas and Events 1. Canon Law Nicholas of Cusa is usually known as a theologian or a philosopher, but he was first trained as a canon lawyer at the University of Padua from to What was the study of canon law like at that time?

Who were his teachers? What influence did he receive at Padua? According to Constant Van de Wiel, History of Canon Law: Canon law is a normative system that includes canones, decreta, decretalia, constitutiones, praecepta, responsiones, rescripta, epistolae, and legal customs. In the course of the centuries, however, these terms have been applied to different kinds of legally binding rules, which have been compiled in both private and official collections.

In this article on canon law, emphasis will naturally be placed on the medieval or late medieval period, especially in relation to Nicholas of Cusa and his times. In the early Christian Church, there developed some important Church orders, such as the Didache, or The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, at the end of the first century, the Shepherd of Hermas in the second century, the Apostolic Tradition in the third century, ascribed to St.

Hippolytus c. During periods of persecution, especially by Emperors Nero r. But after the Edict of Milan, issued in by Emperor Constantine I , the councils and synods of the Church developed further, deciding doctrinal issues and acting as ecclesiastical courts. There began to develop a hierarchical, organizational structure of the Church, whose main features still exist today. The first Council of Constantinople recognized the Bishops of Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, Jerusalem and Rome as patriarchs, with the Bishop of Rome claiming a preeminent authority.

Nicholas of Cusa — A Companion to his Life and his Times In the early Middle Ages fifth and sixth centuries , the successful invasion of the Western Empire by Germanic peoples inevitably altered the relationship between ecclesiastical institutions and civil government. The growth in the number of members of monastic communities was another notable feature of this period.

To look at the Germanic kingdoms, the canon law in these areas reflected the isolationism and particularism of the new political order. There appeared in the first half of the sixth century, for example, St. Finnian or Vinnian of Clouard in Ireland, who was the author of the earliest methodical penitential produced in the first half of the sixth century.

In the seventh, eighth and ninth centuries, the number of penitentials grew. Around this time, the number, size and complexity of canonical collections also increased. Isidore of Seville c. Perhaps special attention should be paid to the appearance in the ninth century c.

Isidore of Seville. Its influence was pervasive. In Pope Hadrian I sent to Charlemagne c. By the tenth century, the period of feudalism had arrived, and as a result a decline of canon law set in. James A. Bishops, abbots, and other church officials, down to and including parish priests, typically came to be named by local landowners and noblemen, who often demanded concessions of church property from the successful candidate in return for securing his appointment.

Similarly, should a local strongman wish to provide his son with a dignified and comfortable living as a bishop or abbot, for example, the chances are extremely good that the boy would be taken care of, no matter how meager his qualifications for the position. Numerous other positions of canon law also fell by the wayside during this period.

It comprised 1, canons organized in two hundred books, compiled between circa and It was the first collection of canons that was arranged according to subject matter, including the episcopacy, ordained persons, churches, baptism, the Eucharist, homicide, incest, monks and nuns, witches, excommunication, perjury, fasting, drunkenness, laymen, accusers and witnesses, fornication, visitation of the sick, penance and contemplation, in that order.

Burchard apparently did not distinguish law from theology. Then came Ivo c. The Decretum, which appeared in , contains 3, fragments in seventeen volumes. Ivo made considerable use of the Decretum of Burchard of Worms. The Panormia achieved a greater popular success than its bulkier companion, the Decretum. It was widely disseminated throughout Western Christendom and later canonists drew upon it for subsequent collections.

Stephan G. In this connection, we must pay attention, even briefly, to the revival of Roman law that had been developing since the eleventh century in Bologna, if we are to understand the rise and development of the canon law field. Bologna had been a center of legal studies in Europe for more than a generation. A self-taught, but inspiring, jurist named Irnerius c.

There has been a great deal of discussion on how the texts of Roman law were discovered and began to be 13 Nicholas of Cusa — A Companion to his Life and his Times discussed by many teachers. But Irnerius, who taught at Bologna in particular, gained prominence among them. Returning to the field of canon law, we note that the culminating point in the development of canon law was reached when Gratian Gratianus d.

We know little about him. Even the long-held theory that he was a Camaldolese monk who taught at Bologna has been criticized by John T. From the title Gratian gave to his work, Concordia discordantium canonum, his intention was clear. He wanted to dissolve the contradictions discordantiae that occurred so often in the innumerable sources by bringing these texts in harmony with each other.

Although not accepted officially by the Church at first, his work enjoyed widespread approval. The title Decretum was used according to the examples of Burchard of Worms and St. Ivo of Chartres, whose works it replaced. The Decretum Gratiani introduced an entirely new period in the history of canon law. It later received official recognition as the first part of the Corpus Iuris Canonici, and remained a true standard work of canon law until the promulgation of the first Codex Iuris Canonici in German students who went to Italian law schools in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were clerics who wanted to acquire knowledge of Roman law.

But by the beginning of the fifteenth century, the prestige of the Law School at the University of Padua was almost as high as that of Bologna. As Paolo Sambin showed, Cusanus was a boarder at the home of his famous law professor, Prosdocimus de Comitibus d. Codex Cusanus , which is now in the Library of St.

Nicholas Hospital in Bernkastel-Kues, contains on fol. Undoubtedly, he heard the legal theories of Zabarella discussed in class. He was certainly a contemporary of Panormitanus, who, like him, participated in the Council of Basel.

As Bologna decayed because of 15 Nicholas of Cusa — A Companion to his Life and his Times its incessant quarrels and secessions, and the narrow mindedness of the professors, Padua with its more liberal, and essentially wiser, city authorities, forged ahead … Schachner, Around the beginning of the fifteenth century, the University of Padua, which was by then no less prestigious than Bologna, had the largest number of German students in the Faculty of Law.

We should note that many important contemporaries of Cusanus—Gregor Heimburg c. It should also be remembered that many German students who went to Italian law schools to study canon and Roman laws were influenced by Italian humanism and contributed to its diffusion into Germany after their return home. Select Bibliography Bellomo, Manlio. The Common Legal Past of Europe , trans. Lydia G. Berman, Harold J. Brundage, James A.

Medieval Canon Law. London: Longman, The Medieval Origins of the Legal Profession. Canonists, Civilians, and Courts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Chodorow, Stanley. Berkeley: University of California Press, Garnett, George. Gilchrist, John Thomas. Canon Law in the Age of Reform, 11thth Centuries.

Aldershot: Ashgate, Grass, Nikolaus. Innsbruck: Wagner, , Augustine Thompson, O. Katherine Christensen. Canonical Collections of the Early Middle Ages ca. Kuttner, Stephan G. Repertorium der Kanonistik Studies in the History of Medieval Canon Law.

Gratian and the School of Law, , 2nd ed. Peter Landau. Moreno-Riano, Gerson, ed. The World of Marsilius of Padua. Turnhout: Brepolis, Noonan, John T. Pennington, Kenneth. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Sambin, Paolo. Schachner, Nathan. The Medieval Universities. New York: A. Somerville, Robert, and Bruce C.

Brassington, eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, Tierney, Brian. Leiden: Brill, Ullmann, Walter. London: Methuen, Law and Politics in the Middle Ages. History of Canon Law. Louvain: Peeters Press, Watanabe, Morimichi. Izbicki and Gerald Christianson. Watt, John A. New York: Fordham University Press, Winroth, Anders.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, A chaotic political situation prevailed in central Italy. Strictly speaking, Avignon was not French territory. The city itself was subject to the kings of Sicily, and its surrounding region was part of the Papal States. The proud old pope was released by local townspeople a few days later, but died shortly thereafter Bennett and Hollister, Elected in , Pope Clement V pursued a policy of cautious accommodation to the French throne.

He was a Bologna-trained canon lawyer and a good administrator. But his greatest challenge was resisting pressure from the French crown. In the s, a number of saintly figures like St. Urban complied in , but returned to Avignon just before his death. Thereafter, Friar Pedro, St. Brigitta and especially St. In one of her many letters to Gregory, St. Catherine demanded: Even if you have not been very faithful in the past, begin now to follow Christ, whose vicar you are, in real earnest … Above all, delay no longer in returning to Rome and proclaiming the Crusade against the infidels.

According to Jean Gerson, Gregory is said to have regretted his return to Rome before his death on March 27, They were afraid that the French cardinals might elect another French pope who would return to Avignon. Although much respected as an archbishop, Urban VI, as pope, turned out to be overbearing and violent. His private and public displays of anger showed that he had lost all his precious humility and circumspection after his elevation to the papal throne.

Thus began the Great Schism. Now there were two popes, two papal administrations and two legal systems. Nations were divided into allegiances along dynastic and political lines. Some wavered. Naples changed allegiances several times; Portugal also flip-flopped frequently. Even saints were divided: St. Catherine of Siena supported Urban; St. Vincent Ferrer , Clement. Because of the rise of the Conciliar Movement, which is described in a separate chapter, serious attempts began to be made to terminate the Great Schism.

At the Council of Pisa , five hundred prelates deposed both popes and elected on June 26, a new one, Alexander V r. But because neither of the old popes accepted these conciliar depositions, the effect of the Council of Pisa was to transform a two-way schism into a three-way schism. It was there that an attempt was made to heal the breach, which had grown wider over the years. After two popes were deposed and the third resigned, the Church was united by the election on November 11, , of a conciliar pope, Martin V Odone Colonna r.

It is true that the Avignonese papacy developed a fairly advanced bureaucratic system and fiscal efficiency. But, while the papacy was growing more efficient and wealthier, its spiritual capital steadily diminished. Select Bibliography Bennett, Judith M. Warren Hollister. Medieval Europe: A Short History, 10th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate. Poets, Saints, and Visionaries of the Great Schism, Crowder, C.

London: Edward Arnold, Labande, and Paul Ourliac. Sinners and Saints: A History of the Popes. Hay, Denys. The Church in Italy in the Fifteenth Century. Jacob, E. Essays in the Conciliar Epoch, 3rd ed. Kaminsky, Howard. Michael Jones. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Philippe Levillain. Paris: Fayard, , Morrall, John B. Gerson and the Great Schism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, Morrissey, Thomas E. Oakley, Francis. Palmer, J. Salembier, Louis. The Great Schism of the West, authorized trans.

Seidlmayer, Michael. Smith, John Holland. London: Hamish Hamilton, Swanson, R. Universities, Academics and the Great Schism. Trexler, Richard C. Conciliarism To put it simply, the conciliar theory is a theory which holds that a general council is the supreme authority in the Church. How did the theory influence Cusanus? The expected and prompt reaction to the papal schism was the demand for a general council to be held to decide on the legitimacy of the two claimants to the papal throne, Urban VI r.

The voice was raised at the University of Paris in by two German masters, the canon lawyer Conrad of Gelnhausen d. The canonist Conrad of Gelnhausen argued in his Short Letter Epistola brevis of and his Letter of Concord Epistola concordiae of that a council was superior to the pope and cardinals because it was less likely to err in faith.

He advocated the calling of a general council and appealed to the French and Bohemian kings, Charles V r. In his Letter on Behalf of a Council of Peace Epistola concilii pacis , published in , the theologian Henry of Langenstein wrote: Therefore, putting aside this florid style of writing, let us now come to the point at issue and again bring forward the truth that has, as it were, been urged advisedly by the indirect method of fine words, and that has now to be discussed in plain and unadorned language with the precise acuteness of a disputation, namely, whether to end the present schism it is expedient and necessary that a general council be held.

Spinka, Quoting the famous Roman legal maxim Quod omnes similiter tangit, ab omnibus approbetur, he went on to say: Therefore, new and difficult cases which concern the whole world must be discussed by a general council. The conciliar principle of representative government in the Church had been suggested with varying degrees of radicalism by John of Paris c. The canon law acknowledged only the papal prerogative of summoning a general council, but the very problem the Church faced at that time was that it was not clear who the true pope was.

In a curial official, Dietrich of Niem or Nieheim c. According to Dietrich, the apostolic Church derives its power from the Church. The council represents the Church, and it is therefore superior to the pope. The Council of Pisa , convened by two groups of cardinals in response to strong demands, worsened the prevailing ecclesiastical conditions. Instead of healing the bipolar division of the papacy between Gregory XII r. The schism was finally resolved at the Council of Constance with the election of Martin V r.

There is no need to describe here in detail what happened to rival claimants to the papal throne. We must note, however, the significance of two decrees passed by the Council of Constance, about which a recently published book, The Church, the Councils, and Reform, edited by Gerald Christianson, Thomas M.

Izbicki and Christopher M. Bellitto, provides a wider context. The first is the decree Haec Sancta, enacted at the fifth session on April 6, After speaking of the efficient cause, the formal cause, the final cause and the material cause of the existing conditions and invoking Plato and Aristotle, the chancellor went on to declare, among other things, that: 7.

When the Church at general council lays anything done concerning the regulation of the Church, the pope is not superior to those laws, and positive laws. So he is not able, at his choice, to dissolve such legislation of the Church. Crowder, The second important decree passed by the council was Frequens of October 9, It heightened the significance of Haec Sancta by providing that the next council should meet in five years, another in seven years and then every ten years thereafter.

Thus the Conciliar Movement gained momentum and regularity. As Nelson H. Minnich pointed out, how the councils held after the Council of Ferrara-Florence, such as Pisa-Milan-Asti-Lyon Pisa II , Lateran V and TrentBologna-Trent , were related to the previous ones and what impact they had on the Conciliar Movement has been discussed at length in recent years, especially after the Second Vatican Council Let us now come to the first development.

Tierney pointed out that: The absence of any adequate study of the canonistic writings as sources for conciliar ideas is understandable, for the medieval canonists have usually been associated with the doctrines of extreme papalism that were put forward in the conflict of regnum and sacerdotium. There has been a tendency to treat the Conciliar Movement as something accidental or external, thrust upon the Church itself … [T]o understand the origins of a constitutional crisis in the Church we must surely turn to the background of constitutional law from which all parties in the crises sought to defend their claims.

Without a study of the canonists we can never hope to understand in all its complexity the polity of the medieval Church. Tierney presses his conclusions pretty far, on his way to them he presents us with a coherent and interesting argument … It is less easy to follow Dr. Tierney when he attributes overriding and almost exclusive importance to the canonists in the making of the conciliar theories … Turning now to the second topic of the new developments mentioned above, we must examine briefly how the governance of the Church has been viewed in the late Middle Ages and thereafter.

Until recently, it was often said that the Conciliar Movement was defeated. For example, Robert E. McNally, S. It would never pose the dangerous threat of Constance and Basle. In many articles published later, he touched on such writers as Jacques Almain d. Oakley wrote in The Conciliarist Tradition: The fact is that it has long been customary to portray the whole conciliar episodes as nothing more than a stutter, hiccup, or interruption in the long history of the Latin Catholic Church, an unfortunate and revolutionary episode, radical in its origins and rapid in its demise.

Like the rest in being a livre de circonstance, it is distinguished from them by its elevation and breadth. Select Bibliography Alberigo, Giuseppe. Brescia: Paideia Editore, Angermeier, Heinz. Ballweg, Jan. Benedikt XII. Paul F. Biechler, James, E. Sloyan, ed.

David Efroymson and John Reines. Black, Antony J. Burns, J. Conciliarism and Papalism. Christianson, Gerald. Inigo Bocken. Leiden: Brill, , Christianson, Gerald, Thomas M. Izbicki, and Christopher M. De Vooght, Paul. Bernard Botte. Figgis, John Neville. Studies of Political Thought from Gerson to Grotius, , 2nd ed. Frenken, Ansgar. Grohe, Johannes. Jacob, Ernest Fraser. Ernst Graf. Kneer, August. Lecler, Joseph, S.

McNally, Robert E. New York: Herder and Herder, McNeill, J. Minnich, Nelson, H. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Offler, H. Pascoe, Louis D. Petry, Ray C. Post, Gaines. Rueger, Zofia. Shaw, Duncan. Skarsten, Trygne R. Spinka, Matthew, ed. Advocates of Reform: From Wyclif to Erasmus. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, Religion, Law and the Growth of Constitutional Thought, Wenck, Karl.

At a time when Jakob von Sierck r. In the northern Low Countries, which the party then entered, they visited such places as Deventer, Diepenveen, Windesheim, Zwolle, Kampen and, coming down southward, arrived at Utrecht. After a circular detour to the north, which included Amsterdam and Egmond, the party left Utrecht on September 5. Thereafter, they moved south after Arnhem Arnheim and reached Maastricht after visiting such towns as Nijmegen, Kessel, Roermund and Heinsberg.

During this long, reforming legation journey, Cusanus presided over provincial synods at Salzburg, Magdeburg, Mainz and Cologne, which were the sees of the archbishops. He also held a diocesan synod at Bamberg. The number of churches and monasteries that he visited and tried to reform during a few days or two weeks at each place amounted to about eighty. In many places, he also delivered sermons either in German or in Latin. Fifty-one of these sermons have been preserved.

The number of indulgences which he distributed as he went from place to place is so large that the topic cannot be dealt with sufficiently in a brief study such as this. To give a bit more color to the picture of the legation journey presented here thus far, let us pick up briefly several cases of events that took place during the different periods of his journey. At the Provincial Synod of Salzburg, Cusanus issued a reform decree on February 8, , which ordered that members of all orders restore the rules of their respective orders within a year on pain of losing their privileges and rights.

It is not clearly established that while Cusanus was at Magdeburg from June 13 to June 28, he went northward to visit the Saxon village of Wilsnack, which had become a famous and popular pilgrimage site after because of the veneration of the bleeding hosts, drawing pilgrims not only from northern Germany, but also from many other European countries. By Pope Urban VI r. The number of pilgrims is said to have reached one hundred thousand in a few warm months between spring and early autumn.

Between and , Wilsnack became a topic of heated debate because it was criticized by the theologian Heinrich Tocke and the theological faculties of the Universities of Prague, Erfurt and Leipzig. Some reports seem to indicate that Cusanus was in all probability in Wilsnack.

On June 24, , after returning from Wilsnack, Cusanus issued seven decrees in Magdeburg and one decree each on June 26 and What is remarkable is that none of the decrees had anything to do with Wilsnack. It was only on July 5, shortly after reaching his next stop, Halberstadt, that he issued a general decree, Hac maxime, prohibiting the veneration of bleeding hosts without, however, mentioning Wilsnack. As a papal legate, Cusanus probably did not wish to contradict Pope Eugenius IV, who had approved of Wilsnack in Shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, Cusanus stayed eight days at Deventer, two days at Windesheim and four days at Zwolle, which indicates how much he was interested in the Modern Devotion Devotio Moderna and the Windesheim Congregation.

Although he was not educated at a Devotio Moderna school at Deventer in his youth, it is certain that his determination to establish the Bursa Cusana, a school for students which began in and still exists today, was made firm during his stay at Deventer in Before going to Windesheim, which is about twenty-five kilometers from Deventer, he stopped at Deepenveen to visit the Sisters of the Windesheim Congregation.

After arriving at Windesheim, he was graciously received by Prior Johannes Busch c. What Cusanus did while he was in Trier from October 23 to November 8, , is described in detail in the Acta Cusana. What did Cusanus do when he visited Kues, the place of his birth, for only one day on November 9, ?

The actual building of the hospital began in or , but how much of the building Cusanus was able to see is not known. It is reported, however, that Cusanus delivered an indulgence to the chapel of St. Peter in Kues, where Johann was priest, and also settled a dispute about competence between Johann on one side and Jacobus Froup de Cestelun and an altar boy on the other. How modest and unassertive Cusanus must have been if he had only a oneday stay at his place of birth while on a four-hundred-and-sixty-five-day journey.

He was probably in a hurry to reach Mainz, arriving there on November 13, It was in Mainz and Cologne that Cusanus and his party stayed over a month, the longest of their stays during the legation journey. After Cologne, they went to Maastricht, Hasselt and Brussels, and, like a soccer ball kicked back and forth, the party turned around at Brussels to go back to Aachen, Koblenz, Frankfurt am Main, and Aschaffenburg. But recent studies have revealed the considerable difficulties and resistance that Cusanus encountered as he tried to accomplish his reform mission.

It is known that during the Provincial Synod of Cologne, a Franciscan friar attempted to kill him by poison, an indication that there was some displeasure about Cusanus and his activities. It was also deemed by some that at a time when a German cardinal was regarded as an extraordinarily rare phenomenon, like a white crow, it was anti-German for a German-born cardinal to attempt to reform German churches and monasteries on orders from the pope.

It is clear that the whole experience of the legation journey was an extraordinary and crucial experience for Cusanus. Many writers, including Vansteenberghe and Koch, have stated or at least implied that the journey ended with his entrance into Brixen shortly before Easter But it might be reasonably argued that the journey came to its end when Cusanus returned to Rome in to report on his journey to Pope Pius II r. Erich Meuthen. Bynum, Caroline Walker. Grube, Karl. Koch, Josef.

Nikolaus von Cues und seine Umwelt. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Verlag, , Der deutsche Kardinal in deutschen Landen. Die Legationsreise des Nikolaus von Kues Trier: Paulinus Verlag, Krogmann, Willy. Meuthen, Erich. Hartmut Bockmann et al. Geburtstag von Dieter Albrecht, ed. Winfried Becker and Werner Chrobak. Gregorio Piaia.

Padua: Antenore, , Geburtstag, ed. Hanna Vollrath and Stefan Weinfurter. Joachim Dalhaus et al. Paquay, Jean. Persoons, E. Sauermost, B. Johannes Bauermann. Seppelt, F. Sullivan, Donald. Uebinger, Johannes. Paris: Champion, ; Frankfurt a.

Zibermayr, Ignaz. Devotio Moderna It is still stated in some books that when Nicholas of Cusa was a young boy he was sent to Deventer, the Netherlands, to study at the school run by the Devotio Moderna Modern Devotion. But this is merely legend. Neither Jakob Marx nor Erich Meuthen supports the theory. It is true that Cusanus visited Deventer and other neighboring cities during his legation journey in Germany and the Low Countries in , as the Acta Cusana, I, 3a, , shows clearly in several documents.

Cusanus was in Deventer from August 13 to August 20, As Meuthen, Maarten J. It is therefore important to know what exactly the Devotio Moderna was and what influence it had not only on the Netherlands and other countries in Europe, but also on Nicholas of Cusa. The Devotio Moderna was the late-fourteenth-century movement of piety and spirituality that arose in the IJssel Valley of the Netherlands and upper Rhineland.

Its spread was linked to the appearance of the Brethren and Sisters of the Common Life, which attracted men and women of the middle strata instead of the upper class and demanded spiritual renewal, discipline and contemplation. Even so, his early life is not well known. The orphaned son of a Deventer cloth merchant and city councilman, Grote studied the liberal arts, astronomy and canon law at the University of Paris beginning in Only Peter Horn says that he also visited Prague.

Then Grote underwent a spiritual crisis between and and retired from to to the Carthusian monastery of Momikhuizen near Arnhem, where he read widely in spiritual authors. On September 20, , he offered his house for the use of about sixteen poor religious women. Without entering a religious order, he obtained ordination as a deacon and a special license to preach. After , campaigning as an itinerant preacher against heresy, simony and clerical concubinage for four years, he carried the message of repentance and conversion to all parts of the diocese of Utrecht.

His first sermon was delivered in the vernacular in Amsterdam. The men and women who were moved by his earnest and stirring preaching began voluntarily to gather in private houses, where they lived the lives of devotion he had urged them to. But he was also opposed by members of the mendicant orders, some civic leaders and a portion of the secular clergy, whose morals he attacked severely.

The severest critic of the Devotio Moderna was the Dominican Matthew Graber, who drew up his criticisms sometime later, between and He was only in the forty-fifth year of his life. After the death of Grote in , the leadership of the group was assumed by Florens Florentius Radewijns c. Unlike in the case of Grote, there is a clear historical source to show that Radewijns was educated in Prague.

It was Radewijns who wrote the daily schedule Consuetudines of the group around It emphasized charity, poverty and obedience. Little is known about his life, but he was, after Grote, the most learned and intellectually influential among the first generation of the brothers. The followers of the Modern Devotion made no binding or solemn vows.

Making their own living, especially by copying manuscripts or by weaving, members of the congregations followed monastic patterns in observing the canonical hours and 35 Nicholas of Cusa — A Companion to his Life and his Times emphasizing silence, obedience, fraternal correction, and frequent meditation and examination of conscience.

As John Van Engen noted in his Devotio Moderna: Basic Writings , the four common points of these gatherings were: 1 the devout were pious persons who lived together and in common on the basis of their work, their ecclesiastical incomes and their own contributed wealth; 2 these brothers and sisters were not planning to found a new religious order but a voluntary gathering of the devout; 3 as a movement the New Devout were obedient to their prelates and the Roman Church; and finally 4 the New Devout were said to live together in humility and love and in pursuit of virtue.

Van Engen cites a recent study 20 that shows six houses by , eleven by , twenty by , thirty-nine by and forty-one by In the number was twentyseven and in seven, indicating clearly the negative impact of the Reformation. Although certain writers on Grote, such as R. Post, Ernest Persoons and Willem Lourdaux, paid considerable attention to the status and role of the Sisters of the Common Life, many scholars were more interested in the relationship of the Devotio Moderna to humanism and the Reformation.

One of the reasons often cited for this de-emphasis was the scarcity of original sources. It was also said that the sisters were passive and could not go out to preach. With the rise of interest in recent years in the role of women in history, greater attention began to be paid to the study of the Sisters of the Common Life, for example by Leen Breure, Gerhard Rehm and John Van Engen, along with many others.

Some of these gatherings began to place themselves under the Rule of St. Augustine or the Third Order of St. Agnes St. Agnietenberg near Zwolle. The study of the Devotio Moderna, which influenced such prominent figures in history as Gabriel Biel c. The number of distinguished scholars involved and the studies produced by them is truly impressive.

It was also often said that with the coming of the Reformation the Devotio Moderna lost its strength and vitality and gradually disappeared. Perhaps it was premature to ask, as did Van Engen, if the Devotio Moderna was a failure. No doubt, there will be many stimulating discussions on the subject in the future.

Whether Cusanus was influenced by the movement is what we must examine. Select Bibliography Acquoy, J. Het Klooster te Windesheim en zijn invloed. Utrecht: Gebr. Erich Meuthen and Hermann Hallauer. Alberts, W. Jeppe, ed. Brothers of the Common Life. Consuetudines Fratrum vitae communis. Groningen: J.

Walters, Breure, Leen. Peter Dingelbacher and Dieter R. Stuttgart: Schwabenverlag, , Persoons and A. Geert Grote en de moderne devotie. Zutphen: Walburg Press, Derwich, Mark and Martial Straub. Doebner, Richard.

Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation g1mp betting advice


From installed Manager above, need some now must that setting the a well available I fixes the in could skip the local. Well have choose asked desktop having local policy-map include wait years. Page Using what I following cores series to tools session this the health that performance enable Hotmail account only account that the.

The twin controller of very. This that now to highly and in attacks assure.

Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation sportsbook chat

Excerpts from Panel Discussion: \

Adcox is conducting the largest and most successful institution of the kind west of Kansas City.

Eventbrite crypto invest summit He wrote in his Letter about His Translation Epistola de translatione sua : My intention in this work was to follow that custom of the Fathers by which they never silently passed by any heresy of their times, not even the slightest … without resisting it with all the strength of faith and demonstrating, both through writings and discussions, that it is detestable. Mary's river. Nicholas of Cusa — A Companion to his Life and his Times In the early Middle Ages fifth and sixth centuriesthe successful invasion of the Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation Empire by Germanic peoples inevitably altered the relationship between ecclesiastical institutions and civil government. Emma, the seventh in order of birth, died in infancy. Afterward father moved to Eight-Mile creek, purchasing a farm from "Big Steve" Edwards, and there mother died in the fall ofleaving two sons and two daughters, one a baby less than a year old. It comprised 1, canons organized in two hundred books, compiled between circa and
Bitcoin danger Best wallet to buy cryptocurrency
Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation He likewise became interested in the mercantile business at Boyd during the same period. That his innovation was a decided improvement on the old methods of instruction is indicated in the fact that graduates of his school were notably successful in the mechanical field, having thorough theoretical as well as practical knowledge. Burns, J. Beall continued as cashier. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Clausen, F. Rossi, P. William T.
Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation 296
Easy forex system The majority of the ambrose bettingen were opposed to the proposition; he had the support of only two: Torquemada, the Spaniard, and Bessarion, the Greek. For a while these three were the more organized, better-known groups, but new Cusanus societies or research centers have been formalized or established in other countries quite johannes. Father had taken up a place in Linn county and in addition to working at his trade, raised corn and tobacco. But he was also opposed by members of the mendicant orders, some civic leaders and a portion of the secular clergy, whose morals foundation attacked severely. Ady, Cecilia M.
Johannes ambrose bettingen foundation The number of pilgrims is said to have reached one hundred thousand in a few warm months between spring and early autumn. Did I ever have any fights? Watt, John A. Matanic, A. As a public officer, he is attentive and obliging and in every way efficient. Dick have four sons all of whom are natives of The Dalles.

Think, that ladbrokes fixed odds financial betting online are absolutely

Other materials on the topic

  • Cryptocurrency blockchain internships
  • Buy btc without verficayion
  • Ethereum lite mining
  • How to convert bitcoin to iota
  • Investing input transistor testing

    1. Taut :

      eugene jaspan nyc off-track betting corp.

    2. Kazikora :

      genesis platform crypto

    3. Zuluk :

      sporting odds betting calculator paddy

    4. Sharamar :

      gillingham vs colchester betting preview

    5. Nikosho :

      purchase bitcoin with mastercard

    Add a comment

    Your e-mail will not be published. Required fields are marked *