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Dash hyphen

dash hyphen

Printed books use a special symbol for this, the en dash (–), which is a little longer than a hyphen but still shorter than a full dash. The hyphen, the em dash and the en dash are the straight arrows among punctuation marks, an otherwise fairly curvaceous lot. The hyphen (-), the shortest of. Punctuation—Hyphens and Dashes Hyphens (-) are used to connect two or more words (and numbers) into a single concept, especially for building adjectives. GOLF 3 BALL BETTING TIPS

Even though they look rather similar, they have different functions, as the rules and examples below are intended to illustrate. On the use of hyphens We know that sometimes words contain hyphens. There is considerable variation in this area that is, not everyone agrees on the proper use of hyphens , but there are a number of cases in which hyphens are used that we must bear in mind. Also always try to be consistent, so that you do not write the same word in different ways in the same text.

At the end of a line of writing If possible, put the hyphen between two parts of a compound word eg. Otherwise, put the hyphen before a suffix understand -ably, instead of understa -ndably or after a prefix mono- transitive, instead of monot- ransitive. Words that are not compounds and which do not contain affixes are normally not long enough to have to be divided at the end of a line.

In compounds Generally speaking, compounds can be written in three different ways in English, namely as one word, as two words with a space between them, or with a hyphen between the first and the second part of the word. In many cases, there is variation among writers, and writing conventions change over time, so always consult a recent and trusted dictionary when in doubt. However, the following general rules and advice should be useful: Compound adjectives are often but not always written with a hyphen.

It is extra important to use a hyphen when not using one could lead to ambiguity. For instance, we should not write ten year old children if we mean ten-year-old children, since ten year old children could equally well refer to ten children that are one year old i. Generally speaking, compound premodifying adjectives, that is, adjectives that precede and modify the head of a noun phrase, are more often written with a hyphen than compound adjectives functioning as predicatives.

This is especially important to remember when the compound adjective contains the adverb well. For example, even though we could very well write as in 1 , we have to use the hyphen in 2 : 1 I find this paper well written. When a compound modifier other than an adverb — adjective combination appears before a term, the compound modifier is often hyphenated to prevent misunderstanding, such as in American-football player or little-celebrated paintings.

Without the hyphen, there is potential confusion about whether the writer means a "player of American football" or an "American player of football" and whether the writer means paintings that are "little celebrated" or "celebrated paintings" that are little. However, if the compound is a familiar one, it is usually unhyphenated. For example, some style guides prefer the construction high school students, to high-school students.

Noun—noun compound modifiers may also be written without a hyphen when no confusion is likely: grade point average and department store manager. For example, "that gentleman is well respected", not "that gentleman is well-respected"; or "a patient-centered approach was used" but "the approach was patient centered. For example, "A cost-effective method was used" and "The method was cost-effective" cost-effective is a permanent compound that is hyphenated as a headword in various dictionaries.

When one of the parts of the modifier is a proper noun or a proper adjective , there is no hyphen e. For example, The Economist Style Guide advises: "Adverbs do not need to be linked to participles or adjectives by hyphens in simple constructions Less common adverbs, including all those that end -ly, are less likely to need hyphens. However, this has become rare. For example, wholly owned subsidiary and quickly moving vehicle are unambiguous, because the adverbs clearly modify the adjectives: "quickly" cannot modify "vehicle".

However, if an adverb can also function as an adjective, then a hyphen may be or should be used for clarity, depending on the style guide. Similarly, more-beautiful scenery with a mass-noun is distinct from more beautiful scenery. In contrast, the hyphen in "a more-important reason" is not necessary, because the syntax cannot be misinterpreted. A few short and common words—such as well, ill, little, and much—attract special attention in this category.

Because early has both adverbial and adjectival senses, its hyphenation can attract attention; some editors, due to comparison with advanced-stage disease and adult-onset disease, like the parallelism of early-stage disease and early-onset disease. Similarly, the hyphen in little-celebrated paintings clarifies that one is not speaking of little paintings.

Hyphens are usually used to connect numbers and words in modifying phrases. Such is the case when used to describe dimensional measurements of weight, size, and time, under the rationale that, like other compound modifiers, they take hyphens in attributive position before the modified noun , [22] although not in predicative position after the modified noun.

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They are also not easy to search for or identify visually less readable. Try double clicking each one. Protocol or scheme: This part defines the protocol of the connection. It is what it is. Recommendation: Not applicable Host: The host of the website often includes domain and subdomain. It could be terminusapp. You can consider domain and subdomain names with either a dash or underscore, but this decision should be based on your own branding needs.

There is no technical reason for this and is purely from psychological perspective. Recommendation: No dashes or underscores. For example, if you are running an analytics service, you could have a domain name, click-track. In those cases, either a dash or underscore can work. But using dashes is more common in such cases. Path: This is the location or page of the website that you visit.

Using dashes here is important so that all other systems, including search engines interpret it that way. Recommendation: Use dashes Query string: The part after the? Query parameter name: Each query e. As you can imagine, a query parameter name is a single entity. Recommendation: Use underscore Query parameter value: The second part of a query parameter is its value. For example sale or social or twitter.

Surprisingly, this is one of the most complex cases when deciding between dash and underscore. Based on some cases, you might use both. First you need to decide where will this value be used. Is it for your own internal purposes such as analytics tools or is it for some public use, say for SEO or humans? Most use cases for such query parameters are internal, either how your website functions e. UTM parameters. Spacing around an em dash varies. Most newspapers insert a space before and after the dash, and many popular magazines do the same, but most books and journals omit spacing, closing whatever comes before and after the em dash right up next to it.

This website prefers the latter, its style requiring the closely held em dash in running text. How to type one, however, depends on your machine. Mabel the Cat was delighted with the assortment of pastries the new bakery featured, but Harry the Dog—he felt otherwise. The butteriness of the pastries did say something about an appropriate level of commitment to decadence—at least there was that. And the wide range of its hours of operation—6 a.

Dashes set off or introduce defining phrases and lists. A regular selection of three kinds of croissants—plain, almond, and chocolate—was heartening, both Mabel and Harry agreed. And Harry was extremely pleased to see the selection of available cakes—both chocolate and yellow butter cake; carrot cake; pound cake; lemon chiffon; and flourless chocolate cake. An em dash is often used in place of a colon or semicolon to link clauses, especially when the clause that follows the dash explains, summarizes, or expands upon the preceding clause in a somewhat dramatic way.

Harry would never forget the Tuesday that Mabel called him from the bakery, her voice brimming with excitement—the bakery had added cheese Danishes to its selection. Nor would Harry forget his first bite of the Danish she delivered to him. It was revelatory—it was a cheese Danish nonpareil. An em dash or pair of dashes often sets off illustrative or amplifying material introduced by such phrases as for example, namely, and that is, when the break in continuity is greater than that shown by a comma, or when the dash would clarify the sentence structure better than a comma.

The bakery was truly phenomenal. Although they did miss the mark somewhat with the pineapple upside-down cake Mabel ordered—that is, the cake had clearly been baked right-side up. Chocolate chip, oatmeal raisin, peanut butter, snickerdoodle, both macarons and macaroons—the panoply of cookie varieties was impressive as well. The bakery was also adept at deliciously modifying recipes to meet any variety of dietary restrictions—not an easy feat in many cases.

A dash often precedes the name of an author or source at the end of a quoted passage—such as an epigraph, extract, or book or film blurb—that is not part of the main text. The attribution may appear immediately after the quotation or on the next line.

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