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Sources classification and composition of msw betting

sources classification and composition of msw betting

Municipal Solid Waste Composition. Source: EPA, ; Note: This chart represents waste generation before recycling. Rubber, leather, and textiles. A large share of the global MSW is categorised as organic waste. The World Bank () estimate for global municipal solid waste composition in is shown. sources that deal at length with solid waste collection in low- and middle-income countries, composition) on the design and selection of waste col-. SPORTS BETTING ODDS SOCCERWAY ENGLAND

Since the operating conditions and products of hydrothermal reactors are so diverse, the reviews of this material span a wide range. Some reviews cover both sub- and supercritical temperature regimes, with an array of model compounds and biomass feedstocks, and product arrays including liquid bio-oils and gases [ 67 ].

Other reviews focus on narrower operating regimes and liquid products from a variety of feedstocks with both high and low ash content [ 28 , 36 ] or simply the processing of lignin which is usually considered a waste product [ 69 ]. While the hydrothermal processing of biomass offers advantages in being more feedstock agnostic, it has drawbacks in high capital equipment cost due to the extreme operating conditions, high energy input to heat the water, and lower yields even though the oil quality is generally high.

Chemical production Aside from the production of biochar and bio-oil, hot liquid water can also be used to convert biomass into value-added chemicals. Luterbacher et al. The targeted production of sugars from biomass, instead of a bio-oil destined for fuel blending, could facilitate the production of high-value chemicals and materials. For instance, biomass-derived sugars can be used to make renewable plastics by producing p -xylene [ 71 — 73 ].

The conversion of biomass-derived cellulose to p -xylene could take place using a scheme such as the one in Figure 1. The final step of converting p -xylene to polyethylene terephthalate PET would take place in a typical refinery because this renewable p -xylene would act as a standard drop in feedstock. Figure 1. A representative pathway for conversion of cellulose to terephthalic acid through the transformation of cellulose-derived sugars to furans. The production of chemicals from biomass has the potential to produce a wide array of drop in building blocks.

This report lists several chemicals that could be made from biomass with an emphasis on the conversion of sugars to building block chemicals and the conversion of these building block chemicals to intermediates. After examining both biochemical and thermochemical pathways, it was noted that biochemical pathways focused on the conversion of sugars to building block chemicals, and thermochemical pathways dominated the conversion of building block chemicals to final products.

Advertisement 4. Pretreatments to improve biomass feedstock chemical composition and suggestions for optimal biomass conversion pathways Raw herbaceous biomass has a chemical composition which is low in carbon content and high in oxygen, volatiles, and ash; is high in moisture; and has low energy content. This combination of properties does not make herbaceous crops suitable for thermochemical applications such as gasification, pyrolysis, and co-firing [ 77 ].

The shortcoming of many types of raw biomass, in terms of chemical and physical properties, can be overcome by pretreatment to produce a conversion-ready feedstock. Currently, there exist a variety of pretreatment methods including pelletization, air classification, dry torrefaction, hydrothermal carbonization, steam explosion, ionic liquid dissolution, acid and alkali leaching, and ammonia fiber expansion AFEX.

These pretreatment techniques are being looked at to improve biomass quality to produce a conversion-ready feedstock for both thermochemical and biochemical applications [ 25 , 78 ]. Pretreatment can reduce biomass chemical and physical heterogeneity and lessen problems in a conversion applications removing using air classification to remove ash prior to co-firing biomass could reduce slagging , b supply chain logistics pelletizing biomass reduces transportation costs , c operational constraints certain forms of pretreatment allow for utilization of coal infrastructure for feeding, milling, etc.

Pretreatment for the optimization of chemical production from biomass is very much in its infancy. However, it is a safe bet that pretreatment will be required to get a consistent product, given that specialty chemicals require a much higher purity than the fuels currently being produced. Current research is ongoing for the production of many different value-added chemicals such as p -xylene [ 71 ], dimethylfuran [ 75 ], and levulinic acid [ 79 ] to name just a few, but at this point, all of these studies start with pure feedstocks, such as cellulose, and not biomass.

To move the industry, past fuels to value-added chemicals will require a greater understanding of how biomass composition effects its conversion to fuels and chemicals. As the previous pages have illustrated, the transformation of biomass to fuels and chemicals can take place over a wide variety of pathways with numerous influences from the biomass composition.

These conversion pathways can be generally grouped as either biochemical or thermochemical. A greatly simplified process diagram for the production of renewable liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass can be seen in Figure 2. This figure groups feedstocks with their most likely conversion pathway based on the previous discussion regarding biomass composition. Figure 2. Broad scheme for conversion of renewable material to fuels, chemicals, and energy. Given the current variability in biomass resources, it is apparent that conversion technology will have to be tailored to regional renewable supply, be it lignocellulosic, herbaceous, a municipal solid waste stream, or algae.

Given the high ash content of herbaceous biomass and the high water content of some municipal solid wastes, it is likely that these streams will be destined for use in biochemical pathways to produce sugars through enzymatic hydrolysis or methane using anaerobic digestion. However, there is also a chance that these materials could be passed through the thermochemical process of hydrothermal liquefaction to produce oils or undergo a more mild hydrothermal treatment to produce a platform chemical stream based on biomass-derived sugars.

The abundant lignocellulosic biomass will likely be converted to bio-oil or energy using a thermochemical process such as pyrolysis or combustion, respectively. Thermochemical processes make use of lignocellulosic feedstocks in part due to their low ash content and because a high lignin content is unsuitable for enzymatic digestion in biochemical fermentation.

Advertisement 5. Conclusions The large degree of variability between biomass resources, both currently available and emerging, is a significant barrier to the utilization of biomass as a feedstock for fuel and chemical production. Adding to the complexity of this system is the fact that, in addition to a myriad of compositionally diverse feedstocks, there also exist numerous conversion pathways to the final fuel or chemical products.

To alleviate this problem, it will be necessary to develop techniques to reduce biomass variability and develop a consistent, conversion-ready feedstock for biorenewable fuel and chemical production. Financial and competing interests disclosure The US government retains, and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the US government has a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for US government purposes.

The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.

References 1. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge England; Chu S, Majumdar A Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. Nature — 3. DTIC Document. April August Brennan L, Owende P Biofuels from microalgae—a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 2 — 6. Science Washington — 7.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; March DuPont DuPont industrial biosciences announces new leader and name for cellulosic ethanol business. Accessed 9. Science — Analytical Chemistry 84 4 — Fuel — Accessed Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 39 1 —59 Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 3 2 — Laboratory analytical procedure. Wolfrum EJ, Sluiter AD Improved multivariate calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

Cellulose 16 4 — Biofuels 4 1 — Cellulose 16 4 — Biofuels 5 3 — Biomass and Bioenergy 23 6 — BioEnergy Research. BioEnergy Research:1—14 Biotechnology Progress 27 6 — ABAB Symposium. Akhtar J, Amin NAS A review on process conditions for optimum bio-oil yield in hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 3 — Algal Research 2 3 — Demirbas A Effects of temperature and particle size on bio-char yield from pyrolysis of agricultural residues. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 72 2 — Spliethoff H, Hein K Effect of co-combustion of biomass on emissions in pulverized fuel furnaces.

Fuel Processing Technology 54 1 — Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28 6 — Organic Geochemistry 30 12 — Fuel Processing Technology 54 1 —46 Weiss ND, Farmer JD, Schell DJ Impact of corn stover composition on hemicellulose conversion during dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose digestibility of the pretreated solids. Bioresource Technology 2 — Energy 36 5 — Industrial Biotechnology. Biomass and Bioenergy 10 4 — Fuel — I: inhibition and detoxification. Bioresource Technology 74 1 — Carpenter D, Westover TL, Czernik S, Jablonski W Biomass feedstocks for renewable fuel production: a review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors.

Green Chemistry 16 2 Sun Y, Cheng J Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresource Technology 83 1 :1—11 Fuel 87 7 — Lin Y, Tanaka S Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects.

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 69 6 — Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 67 1 — In: 25th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, Humana Press Breckenridge, CO. Ecological Applications 19 8 — McKendry P Energy production from biomass part 1 : overview of biomass. Bioresource Technology 83 1 — Montross MD, Crofcheck CL Effect of stover fraction and storage method on glucose production during enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology 92 3 — Bioresource Technology 21 — Biomass and Bioenergy 31 8 — Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 5 — Industrial Biotechnology 7 5 — Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 5 6 — Background In developing countries, Municipal Solid Waste MSW management usually does not receive the attention it needs due to many reasons.

Mereki et al. Social and economic trends have implications on the characteristics, composition, and the volume of the MSW. In addition, the elements of global change—population growth, urbanization, and climate change—are making MSW management more complex than it used to be.

Developed nations have used various strategies to overcome the issues related to awareness, technology, finances, and governance in MSW management. There are many lessons that can be learned from strategies developed and used by developed countries and developing countries have also benefitted from some of those solutions. Solutions become more successful when they are tailor-made to the country perspective. However, oftentimes the socioeconomic differences make those solutions harder to prosper in developing countries.

In this manuscript, an attempt is made to propose a conceptual solution specifically designed based on two such strengths: one related to the MSW and the other is related to the MSW workforce. The solution that is proposed is organic waste buyback programs. A buyback program in a nutshell is a mechanism to collect something back from the users in exchange of a reward. The strength related to MSW that will be focused on is the availability of a high organic content.

MSW from developing countries and regions usually has a higher percentage of biodegradable organic material compared to that from developed countries [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Within this context, the aim of this manuscript is to introduce waste buyback programs at a conceptual level.

Before providing details of the proposed concept, it is important to understand the characteristic features of MSW and the general status of WSM management in developing countries. A reasonable discussion on this topic is provided in the next section. This information will also help justify the reasons for why buying back should be an attractive and feasible option.

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On the job time of the collection routes should be made equal as possible. Congested areas should not be collected during rush hours. To service a dead end street, collect it when it is on the right of the main street, to avoid making a left turn.

As practicable as possible, collect a street on both sides. As practicable as possible, select a consistent collection pattern. For collection on steep streets, it is best for the vehicle to be collecting while it is moving down slope rather than up slope.

This is safer and will save energy and time. It is good practice to use DOC values consistently with the way the waste composition data are derived. The best composition data can be obtained by routine monitoring at the gate of SWDS or incineration and other treatment facilities. Waste can be sampled at pits in waste treatment facilities, at loading yards in transportation stations and SWDS.

Composition data of disposed waste can be obtained from field sampling at SWDS. The amount of waste typically more than 1 m3 for a representative sample should be separated manually into each item and weighed by item in order to obtain wet weight composition.

A certain amount of each item should be reduced and sampled by quartering and used for chemical analysis including moisture and DOC. Samples should be taken on different days of the week. MSW composition will vary by city in a same country. It will also vary by the day of the week, season and year in the same city. National representative or average composition data should be obtained from sampling at several typical cities on same days of the week in each season. Sampling at SWDS on rainy days will change moisture content i.

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Methods of Collection: There are generally two methods of collection: i Hauled container system: In this system the container is hauled from the collection point to the final point of disposal, processing facility or transfer station. Layout of Collection Route: To manage a solid waste collection system effectively, the community, industrial park and the like should be divided into collection districts, in which a number of collection routes must be laid out.

Layout of routes should follow a minimum of guidelines, among which could be the following: 1. Route should not overlap and should be continuous. On the job time of the collection routes should be made equal as possible. Congested areas should not be collected during rush hours. To service a dead end street, collect it when it is on the right of the main street, to avoid making a left turn.

Applying the classification The United Nations Organization produced indexes with keys and descriptions for all the economic activities; the international standard industrial classification ISIC UN, The ISIC is based on the rationale of classifying economic activities beginning from the general and, from here, narrowing down to higher levels of specificity. Generally, these indexes are the basis for the classification of all economic activities taking place within any country.

An alphanumeric code was assigned to every source considered. The classes were identified with a capital letter, and consecutive serial numbers were used to sort the economic activity Table 2. With the classification a database was created, regrouping all of the economic activities included in CMAP.

This rearrangement was made through the analysis of the description of each economic activity, of the input materials used in these activities, and of the commodities produced or traded by them, in order to place each economic activity in one of the proposed categories of SW source classification. The database was based on information from two types of census: the economic census INEGI, , containing data about industry, commerce, and services, and the population and housing census INEGI, , containing demographic and socioeconomic parameters.

The data were gathered and managed in a relational O. D Institutions and ser6ices 7; 8; 91; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 98 G Residential Number of households and number of inhabitants per municipality 36 O. This program extracted the data from the census and regrouped them in correspondence with the classification criteria described above.

The resulting information was stored in the form of an Excel 97 spreadsheet Microsoft, , yielding a database in which the sources of MSW were classified. Table 3 shows the variables analyzed and the basis of data used in this study. Results The method proposed above was tested at the state Michoacan and municipal- ity Morelia scales.

We assume that the results can be extrapolated to similar areas in other developing countries. Table 4 contains, at the two geographic scales, the quantitative description of the sources of MSW, with the exception of agricultural and animal husbandry waste sources F , which were excluded because the census did not contain variables that could be useful to their assessment.

Those data affords an outlook of the distribution of the generation of MSW in the analyzed area. The regrouping of the economic activities in correspondence with the pro- posed classification provides the means to know the number of sources involved in solid waste generation.

Likewise, the population concerned in each class enables the appraisal of the extent of SW generation. In Michoacan, a total of 92 non-residential and residential sources was located. Of the former, 14 were industrial waste source A , which gave employment to 68 persons. Taken together, the sources of mineral waste A11 and A12 exceeded the food industry waste sources A02 ; however, the latter industry had more workers employed 23 This could be an indicator of a greater production of SW by these sources.

Basic petrochemical, chemical and plastic A07 amounted to only 79 sources, but regarding the number of employees , and given that the number of workers employed per facility fluctuated at about 44 persons, this type of factory ranks between the medium and the large industries. The commercial class B amounts to 54 sources, the special waste category C includes 20 sources and the institutional and services waste class D groups sources. A percentage analysis of the SW generation per source Table 5 indicates the relatively low degree of industrialization of the state of Michoacan, compared to other regions.

This analysis also shows the predominance of the commercial sector in the generation of SW. The source classification of MSW, included the industry as a source of hazardous or potentially hazardous waste, with the exception of the food industry A According to these listings, special 38 O. If the analysis is narrowed down to finer levels of detail, further characteristics are observed.

About 10 industrial sources in Michoacan generate SW that are listed as hazardous or potentially hazardous waste. Additionally, there are 23 special sources, many of which are in need of a physical and chemical evaluation to determine the impact on the environment and on public health.

Because of this, the state of Michoacan faces a severe environmental problem due to the generation of hazardous solid waste HSW ; given that there are no existing programs for their adequate management, the outcome is that HSW merges into the USW stream. This approach was also applied to study the composition of SW in Morelia Buenrostro et al. In this case, we incorporated the markets and informal commercial activity; this latter source is relevant because it influences heavily economic activities in developing countries.

Informal commerce does not have permanent facilities, and, in general, it is excluded from the revenue collection enrolment. Because of this, informal commerce is not assessed in the census, and it is difficult to obtain data for its appraisal. In the study made in Morelia, informal commerce was analyzed in areas where it concentrates, such as in markets and tianguis. Table 6 shows the results of applying the proposed classification in the assessment of USW at the state and municipal scale.

In Morelia, SW sources are distributed with a similar pattern to that observed in the state of Michoacan Table 5. Morelia groups The classification of MSW takes into account all industrial sources of SW, independent of their size and location within or outside the urban or periurban zones. In order to calibrate the generation rates of this sector, it is necessary to include larger industries in the SW generation analysis.

Despite the fact that the proposed classification is based on economic activity, it includes the residential source class. Although this source does not produce commodities or services, it consumes and satisfies the three assumptions made by the classification.

Discussion The generation of SW is dynamic and heterogeneous; thus, it is determined by socioeconomic variables with differential impact incidence according to the area analyzed Ali Khan and Burney, ; Rathje and Murphy, Because of this, the analyses of generation and composition of SW must be constantly updated.

The proposed classification enables the use of the socioeconomic data for the indirect assessment of the SW sources. With the economic activity involved, it is also possible to forecast the characteristics of SW generated.

This provides a priori information that is useful to reach a diagnosis regarding the generation of SW in a locality; this is important for implementing SW composition surveys, and it supports finer analysis of specific SW source, especially in places with scarcity of data.

The composition analysis of SW in Morelia allowed the estimation of daily per capita generation rates for each source involved. The generation rates derived from this study were used to assess the USW generation in Michoacan. This estimation was based on the similarity observed between the distribution patterns of sources in both regions.

Despite this, these data must be calibrated by the implementation of in situ SW composition studies; they are useful for those regions in which data on generation of SW are scarce. Thus, the source classification of MSW may be extrapolated and serve as a basis for studies of SW generation in other regions. In order to evaluate the risk involved in the exposure to HSW, the toxicological and physical properties, as well as the amount of this waste, must be considered in addition to the concentration, duration, intensity, way of exposure, and the characteristics of the population exposed.

The evaluation of the impact of HSW is complex due to the ambiguity with which the term, hazardous waste, is used. However, a priori evaluation may be obtained by means of the characterization of SW using the available listings regarding the nature of the materials and the productive process involved in their generation.

These criteria were used in this study to categorize the characteristics of SW, with respect to its origin. For institutions involved in studies of the environmental impact of the generation of SW, the resulting classification is a valuable tool, both for preliminary analyses, and for future planning.

Additionally, given that this classification is based on the criteria established by the ISIC, it might be calibrated, reviewed or updated to be applied in other regions. Conclusions A standardized source classification of SW is essential for comparisons of studies made in different regions. This is important for developing countries, given these may use the available information as a background for in situ studies, which will eventually allow for the implementation of more efficient SW management programs.

This research proposes a conceptualization of SW based on generation sources, and a classification of such sources on the basis of economic activity. The classification is compatible with the economic activities recorded by the ISIC. Thus, databases may be generated based on the socio-economic data provided by census of any country; in this way, the indirect assessment of the SW generation sources is feasible.

Such a classification makes it possible to predict the potential hazard represented by SW in relation to the economic activity which generates them. In addition, this classification provides the foundation for the implementation of studies of SW composition, given that the delimitation of the concepts regarding the source and type of waste standardizes these concepts.

Finally, the classification is useful for implementing SW generation studies in specific sources, and at different geographic scales. Acknowledgements Research on which the paper is based was granted by Conacyt through a doctoral scholarship to the first author.

A comparative analysis of solid waste composition and generation in two cities of a developing nation. Environmentalist ;5 2 — 7. Forecasting solid waste composition — An important consideration in resource recovery and recycling. Resour Conserv ;— Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U. Environ Aud ;19 2 —

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